arterial pressure


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pressure

 (P) [presh´ur]
force per unit area.
arterial pressure (arterial blood pressure) blood pressure (def. 2).
atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, usually considered as the downward pressure of air onto a unit of area of the earth's surface; the unit of pressure at sea level is one atmosphere. Pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
barometric pressure atmospheric p.
blood pressure
2. pressure of blood on walls of any blood vessel.
capillary pressure the blood pressure in the capillaries.
central venous pressure see central venous pressure.
cerebral perfusion pressure the mean arterial pressure minus the intracranial pressure; a measure of the adequacy of cerebral blood flow.
cerebrospinal pressure the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, normally 100 to 150 mm Hg.
continuous positive airway pressure see continuous positive airway pressure.
filling pressure see mean circulatory filling pressure.
high blood pressure hypertension.
intracranial pressure see intracranial pressure.
intraocular pressure the pressure exerted against the outer coats by the contents of the eyeball.
intrapleural pressure (intrathoracic pressure) pleural pressure.
intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure elevated positive end-expiratory pressure and dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation caused by insufficient expiratory time or a limitation on expiratory flow. It cannot be routinely measured by a ventilator's pressure monitoring system but is measurable only using an expiratory hold maneuver done by the clinician. Its presence increases the work needed to trigger the ventilator, causes errors in the calculation of pulmonary compliance, may cause hemodynamic compromise, and complicates interpretation of hemodynamic measurements. Called also auto-PEEP and intrinsic PEEP.
maximal expiratory pressure maximum expiratory pressure.
maximal inspiratory pressure the pressure during inhalation against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) a measure of the strength of respiratory muscles, obtained by having the patient exhale as strongly as possible against a mouthpiece; the maximum value is near total lung capacity.
maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) the inspiratory pressure generated against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
mean airway pressure the average pressure generated during the respiratory cycle.
mean circulatory filling pressure a measure of the average (arterial and venous) pressure necessary to cause filling of the circulation with blood; it varies with blood volume and is directly proportional to the rate of venous return and thus to cardiac output.
negative pressure pressure less than that of the atmosphere.
oncotic pressure the osmotic pressure of a colloid in solution.
osmotic pressure the pressure required to stop osmosis through a semipermeable membrane between a solution and pure solvent; it is proportional to the osmolality of the solution. Symbol π.
partial pressure the pressure exerted by each of the constituents of a mixture of gases.
peak pressure in mechanical ventilation, the highest pressure that occurs during inhalation.
plateau pressure in mechanical ventilation, the pressure measured at the proximal airway during an end-inspiratory pause; a reflection of alveolar pressure.
pleural pressure the pressure between the visceral pleura and the thoracic pleura in the pleural cavity. Called also intrapleural or intrathoracic pressure.
positive pressure pressure greater than that of the atmosphere.
positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) a method of control mode ventilation in which positive pressure is maintained during expiration to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange. A PEEP higher than the critical closing pressure prevents alveolar collapse and can markedly improve the arterial Po2 in patients with a lowered functional residual capacity, as in acute respiratory failure.
Effects of the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the alveoli. A, Atelectatic alveoli before PEEP application. B, Optimal PEEP application has reinflated alveoli to normal volume. C, Excessive PEEP application overdistends the alveoli and compresses adjacent pulmonary capillaries, creating dead space with its attendant hypercapnia. From Pierce, 1995.
pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)) intravascular pressure, reflecting the left ventricular end diastolic pressure, measured by a swan-ganz catheter wedged into a small pulmonary artery to block the flow from behind.
pulse pressure the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures. If the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg, the pulse pressure is 40 mm Hg; the normal pulse pressure is between 30 and 40 mm Hg.
urethral pressure the pressure inwards exerted by the walls of the urethra, which must be counteracted in order for urine to flow through; see also urethral pressure profile.
venous pressure the blood pressure in the veins; see also central venous pressure.
water vapor pressure the tension exerted by water vapor molecules, 47 mm Hg at normal body temperature.
wedge pressure blood pressure measured by a small catheter wedged into a vessel, occluding it; see also pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and wedged hepatic vein pressure.
wedged hepatic vein pressure the venous pressure measured with a catheter wedged into the hepatic vein. The difference between wedged and free hepatic vein pressures is used to locate the site of obstruction in portal hypertension; it is elevated in that due to cirrhosis, but low in cardiac ascites or portal vein thrombosis.

arterial pressure

The pressure of the blood in the arteries. For a normal young person at physical and mental rest and in sitting position, systolic blood pressure averages about 120 mm Hg; diastolic pressure about 80 mm Hg. A wide range of normal variation is due to constitutional, physical, and psychic factors. For women, the figures are slightly lower. For older people, they are higher. Normally there is little difference in the blood pressure recorded in the two arms.
See: blood pressure
See also: pressure

Patient discussion about arterial pressure

Q. Does Ameal BP lower high blood pressure?

A. The answer is, CURRENTLY, not. Milk proteins (the class that Ameal BP belongs to) do lower blood pressure in lab studies, but trials in humans have shown mixed results. You should remember that it may interfere with other drugs you may take, so first consult your doctor if it's safe for you.
You may try it and see if it works or not.

More discussions about arterial pressure
References in periodicals archive ?
Such patients need prompt identification and maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressures so that to avoid furthermore hypoxic injury to the brain; usually trauma patients have associated other injuries leading to hemorrhage and shock, furthermore decreasing mean arterial pressures (MAP) and thus cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in patients who already have eICP as CPP = MAP-CPP.
As shown by Teramoto et al.,36 the high sodium intake may be associated to an increase in the arterial pressure, making the individuals who live with arterial hypertension within the metabolic syndrome group more vulnerable to the effects of excessive sodium intake.
In the remifentanil group, the mean arterial pressure readings in the perioperative first 20 min were lower, and the heart rate values in the postoperative period were higher, than in the dexmedetomidine group.
Our research has established that the examined subjects who received levobupivacaine for spinal anesthesia intraoperatively presented with slightly higher average arterial pressure. Luck JF et al.
Multiple observational studies show significant variation in CPP measurement technique related to arterial pressure transducer location, and this variation impacts both nursing practice and patient treatment.
Caption: Comparison between BMI and Mean Arterial Pressure
Comparison of pulmonary arterial pressure between the two groups: The peripheral systolic blood pressure (PSBP) and peripheral diastolic blood pressure (PDBP) of the two groups decreased after treatment compared to those before treatment; the decrease amplitude of the observation group was larger than that of the control group (p < 0.05) (Table-III).
Arterial pressures (SAP, DAP, and MAP) were significantly higher in depigmented subjects compared to control subjects.
Caption: Figure 4: Serum NGAL had a significant positive correlation with systolic arterial pressure for children and adult groups with type 1 diabetes according to regression analysis adjusted for age (F ratio = 17.1, P = 0.0001).
Beale, "Pitfalls in haemodynamic monitoring based on the arterial pressure waveform," Critical Care, vol.
On admission, he was hemodynamically unstable with marked arterial pressure fluctuation noted on the first ECG and arterial pressure curve recordings (Figure 1).

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