arterial insufficiency

arterial insufficiency

inadequate blood flow in arteries. It may be caused by occlusive atherosclerotic plaques or emboli; damaged, diseased, or intrinsically weak vessels; arteriovenous fistulas; aneurysms; hypercoagulability states; or heavy use of tobacco. Signs of arterial insufficiency include pale, cyanotic, or mottled skin over the affected area, absent or decreased sensations, tingling, diminished sense of temperature, muscle pains, reduced or absent peripheral pulses, and, in advanced disease, arterial ulcers and atrophy of muscles in the involved extremity. Diagnosis includes checking and comparing peripheral pulses in contralateral extremities, angiography, ultrasound using a Doppler device, and skin temperature tests. Treatment may include a diet low in saturated fats, moderate exercise, sleeping on a firm mattress, use of a vasodilator, and, if indicated, surgical repair of an aneurysm or arteriovenous fistula. Use of tobacco products, prolonged standing, and sitting with the knees bent are discouraged.
enlarge picture
Ulcers in a patient with arterial insufficiency

ar·te·ri·al in·suf·fi·cien·cy

(ahr-terē-ăl insŭ-fishĕn-sē)
Inadequate action of the vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
References in periodicals archive ?
Tissue swelling and increased pressure within the tunica albuginea can ultimately lead to arterial insufficiency (8).
Some published cases have shown that KS lesions can mimic venous ulcers, arterial insufficiency, vascular ulcers, and chronic infected wounds (11).
When assisting with leech therapy, clinical nurses should be able to distinguish between arterial insufficiency and venous congestion.
Leg ulcers are mainly caused by venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, neuropathy, diabetes (Figure 1), or a combination of these factors.
Arterial insufficiency is manifested by a pale color of the replanted part, loss of turgor, slow capillary refill, low temperature, and absent pulse.
CONCLUSION: Ultrasound should be the first modality to asses the patient having arterial insufficiency because of low cost, non-invasive, no risk for radiation, no contrast related reactions and nephrotoxicity.
Literature search on DVT risk factors highlights increasing age immobilisation active rheumatologic disease acute myocardial infarction (AMI) arterial insufficiency cancer central catheters hormone therapy congestive heart failure cerebrovascular accidents infection surgical procedures inflammatory bowel disease nephritic syndrome obesity paresis of legs severe respiratory diseases thrombophilias and varices/chronic venous insufficiency.
Certain chronic wounds do not heal in cases such as type-2 diabetes (these wounds can lead to amputation), neuropathic ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, and arterial insufficiency ulcers.
Results of the case series by Breuing et al (9) suggest that pressure ulcers, arterial insufficiency ulcers, and nonhealing/surgical wounds may respond better to noncontact low-frequency US than venous stasis and diabetic foot ulcers, in terms of healing.
Chronic ulceration may be seen with arterial insufficiency, arteriovenous fistulae, peripheral neuropathies, vasculitides, rheumatoid arthritis, blood dyscrasias, e.
The age-associated diseases studied were high blood pressure, angina pectoris (heart-related chest pain), heart attack, peripheral arterial insufficiency (narrowing and hardening of arteries supplying the legs and feet), cerebrovascular disease (like stroke), adult-onset diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, chronic liver disease, reduced kidney function, cancer, and osteoporosis (severe loss of bone mineral density) or fractures not caused by severe trauma.
Diagnosis and treatment of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities.