Earlier research had indicated that nicotine dampens the arousal reaction. The receptors that Changeux is studying are called nicotinic acetylcholine receptors because both nicotine and acetylcholine bind to them.
Nicotine significantly blunted the arousal reaction in the normal mice, the scientists report in an upcoming issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Brain Mechanisms Explaining Epileptic and Non Epileptic Pathological Arousal Reactions during Sleep in NFLE and AP.
Summing up the symptoms of idiopathic NFLE and its nonepileptic counterpart, the AP can be interpreted as pathologically exaggerated arousal reactions possibly related to mutation of the Ach nicotinic receptor subunit expressed at several levels of the ascending reticular arousal system, with persisting deactivation of the dorsolateral frontal cognitive functions due to NREM sleep.
These types of emotions mainly involve pleasure and arousal reactions that do not require to be cognitively labeled as a specific emotion.
Pleasure reactions had more impact on Aad than arousal reactions (Olney, Holbrook, and Batra, 1991; Pieters and de Klerk-Warmerdam, 1996).
This means that they only measure one type of emotion at one given moment in the advertising process (e.g., measuring one-shot pleasure and arousal reactions after viewing a print advertisement) or they measure one single emotion in a continuous manner (e.g., measuring the level of warmth while viewing a TV commercial).