Melatonin is an indoleamine derived from the serotonin secreted during darkness that acts as a natural inhibitor of the aromatases (Hafez and Hafez, 2003).
The biosynthesis of estrogen is performed by the aromatase enzyme by the process of conversion or aromatization of androgens (C19) to estrogens (C18).
Aromatase is directly linked to folliculogenesis, affecting oocyte quality.
The planetary biology of cytochrome P450 aromatases. BMC Biol.
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 aromatase is responsible for the biosynthesis of estrogen.
The cytochrome P450 enzyme, aromatase, catalyzes the conversion of C18 estrogens to C19 androgens (Choi et al., 1996).
It will be the challenge to design more specific inhibitors of fungal sterol 14[alpha]-demethylases that do not affect animal sterol 14[alpha]-demethylases and aromatases.
This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition of certain pathways of steroidogenesis by high-affinity binding to the enzymes sterol 14[alpha]-demethylase and aromatase. Sterol 14[alpha]-demethytase is crucial for the production of meiosis-activating sterols, which recently were shown to modulate germ cell development in both sexes of mammals.
Aromatase is another target enzyme of azole compounds.
The aromatase that converts testosterone to 17[beta]-estradiol is a possible target.
Key words: aromatase inhibitors, endocrine disruptors, estrogenicity, phytoestrogens, U-shaped dose-response curves.
However, estimating the effects of phytoestrogens is complex because they can be more or lest estrogenic, possess an aromatase inhibitory effect, inhibit other enzymes involved in steroidogenesis, inhibit tyrosine kinases, and have other properties as well (3,4).