All patients performed an incremental exercise test until exhaustion on an arm-crank ergometer
(Monark Rehab Trainer, Model 881E, Vansbro, Sweden) 1 month before THA, as described elsewhere .
The press/pull movements provide a much greater ROM at the shoulder and elbow than do arm-crank ergometers
, matched with dramatically greater muscle stress of the muscles associated with the pulling movements.
However, more in-depth analysis is possible with wheelchair-accessible or specialty equipment, such as rollers and arm-crank ergometers