Therefore, there are no obviously better estimators for discount rates than those based on arithmetic means
. Damodaran (2015) justified using geometric means, but the arguments of Cooper (1996) and Fama (1996) do not appear to technically justify this practice.
The two sets of weight results obtained from the operation results of M-GSO algorithm and the arithmetic mean
are considered as feasible solutions of weights for the elements [u.sub.1], [u.sub.2], [u.sub.3], thereby obtaining the weight range of elements [u.sub.1], [u.sub.2], [u.sub.3], with the weight intervals as [w.sub.1] = [0.592, 0.677], = [0.151, 0.169], w3 = [0.154, 0.256], thus obtaining the importance sequence of [u.sub.1] > [u.sub.3] > [u.sub.2].
To determine if there is a significant difference between arithmetic means
ANOVA was used and the results are presented in Table 10.
[H.sub.1]: We suppose that arithmetic mean
of perceiving the importance of personal presentation on social networks from the point of view of job search by male (nowadays and in the future) is not equal to arithmetic mean
of perceiving of the importance of personal presentation on social networks from the point of view of female and also we assume that the difference between them, if it exists, is not caused only by coincident variation of selection results.
The stark differences between the federal and private-sector wage distributions indicate that following the standard approach of estimating a log-linearized wage model would lead to an inaccurate comparison of the arithmetic mean
of wages between the sectors.
Therefore this mean is preferred to arithmetic mean
in order to reduce the effects of outliers.
Note that, for all [a.sub.i]: [p.sub.j] = 1/n obtains the probabilistic quadratic arithmetic weighted quadratic average (PQAWQA) and [v.sub.i] = 1/n, for all [a.sub.i] obtains the probabilistic quadratic arithmetic mean
As opposed to the arithmetic mean
, there are other more appropriate measures of central tendency to describe data when dealing with asymmetrical distributions and/or with outlier values.
for the geometric, logarithmic and arithmetic means
of positive numbers x, y respectively.
as simple arithmetic mean
of mobile averages, if the intervals between the moments are equal:
Plasma BNP level in control and AMI group BNP (pg/ml) Control group n=61 AMI group N=75 X 35.356 462.875 SD 23.353 405.878 SEM 2.990 47.182 Median 35.710 341.320 Interval 0-94.22 93.23-2249.68 Mann-Whitney Rank p < 0.001 Sum Test (N - number of the individuals, X - arithmetic mean
; SD - standard deviation; SEM - standard error of the mean, p - level of significance) TABLE 4.
While Phillips presents a strong case for the geometric mean, the harmonic mean--the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean
of two reciprocals (in equation form below)--may be more accurate in particular economic situations.