EIF2C2

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EIF2C2

A gene on chromosome 8q24 that encodes a protein required for RNA-mediated gene silencing by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), binding to short RNAs, such as microRNAs or short interfering RNAs, and represseing the translation of mRNAs complementary to them. EIF2C2 lacks endonuclease activity and does not appear to cleave target mRNAs. It is required for transcriptional gene silencing of promoter regions which are complementary to bound short anti-gene RNA through inhibition of translation, independent of endonuclease activity.
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Blood circulating miRNAs are contained in microvesicles known as exosomes or are associated with Argonaute 2 complexes and, as a consequence, are protected from degradation (6,24).
Mammalian Argonaute 2 (Ago2) protein is the key player of RNA-induced silencing complexes, regulating gene function through RNA interference.
Huang et al., "Argonaute 2 complexes selectively protect the circulating microRNAs in cell-secreted microvesicles," PLoS One, vol.
RISC consists in RNA helicase A and proteins such as argonaute 2 and TRBP that will facilitate the binding of miRNA to its mRNA target [57, 58].
White et al., "AUF1 promotes let-7b loading on Argonaute 2," Genes & Development, vol.
Huang et al., "Dephosphorylation of tyrosine 393 in argonaute 2 by protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B regulates gene silencing in oncogenic RAS-induced senescence," Molecular Cell, vol.
CiRS-7 can be cleaved by miR-671 and its associated Argonaute protein, whereas it is not cleaved by miR-7 and Argonaute 2 [298,299].
Apart from these classical pathways (gap junction channels, apoptosis bodies, and synaptic cleft), exosomes are proposed to carry functional miRNAs coupled to the enzyme Argonaute 2 and migrate into the surrounding cells [17].
Argonaute 2 complexes carry a population Of circulating microRNAs independent of vesicles in human plasma.
Specific miRNAs binding to viral RNA during HRV infection is demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitate test with argonaute 2 protein.
Most perfectly complimentary sequences (like most siRNAs) allow for site-specific cleavage of the target mRNAs by argonaute 2, an RNAse III enzyme, at predictable and verifiable locations, namely, distal to the 10th nucleotide from the 5'-end of the guide strand [104,108].
The knockouts can be either a miRNA itself or key miRNA processing factors such as Drosha, Dicer, and argonaute 2 (Ago2).