The four alkaloid compounds identified through biochemical testing are arecoline, arecaidine
, guavacoline and guavacine.
It has been reported that total alkaloids content of SA is approximately 0.3-0.7% , mainly arecoline, arecaidine
, guvacoline, and guvacine.
Overview of the Carcinogenesis of Arecoline and Arecaidine
. Most evidence demonstrates that areca alkaloids (arecoline and arecaidine
) are the major causes of toxicity from AN.
Biochemical studies have shown that there are four alkaloids in betel nut (arecoline, arecaidine
, guvacine and guvacoline) which contribute to the pathology of the disease through distinct mechanisms.4 Recent evidence suggests also a role for copper, through the copper-dependent enzyme lysyl oxidase, which play a role in the cross-linking of collagen.6
 Based on biochemical studies of areca nut, four alkaloids have been conclusively identified: arecoline, arecaidine
, guvacine and guvacoline, among which arecoline is the main agent.
Areca nut contains areca alkaloids such as arecaidine
, guvacoline, guvacaine.
It contains many alkaloids such as arecoline, arecaidine
, guvacine & guvacoline, of which arecoline is the main agent.
These include arecoline, arecaidine
, guvacoline, guvacine, arecolidine, and choline (Chu, 2001; Farnsworth, 1976).
Gonzalez, "A metabolomic approach to the metabolism of the areca nut alkaloids arecoline and arecaidine
in the mouse," Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol.
It facilitates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the saliva of chewers and also facilitates the hydrolysis of arecoline into arecaidine
which in turn facilitates increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis, which are essential for premalignant and malignant transformation of the affected tissues .
These are, arecoline, arecaidine
, guvacine, guvacoline, out of these arecoline is the main component.4 Arecoline forms at least four nitrosamines upon nitration; these products include N-nitrosoguvacine, N-nitroguvacoline, 3-(methyl-nitrosamino) propionitrile (MNPN) and 3-(methylnitrosamino) propionaldehyde (MNPA) and two unknown N-nitrosamines.5,6
This addiction is independent of, and not based on, the tobacco content of betel quid.3 Areca nut, the main constituent of betel quid, along with betel leaves, slaked lime and tobacco, contains aromatic alkaloids such as arecoline, arecaidine
, guvacine and guvacoline.