Archaea


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Archaea

Evolutionary biology
One of the three domains of living organisms: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota. While Archaea are single-celled, they are unlike bacteria given their independent evolutionary history. Archaea differ from Eukaryota in their ribosomal structure and the presence—in some—of introns in the genome, as well as other features (e.g., different membrane composition).
 
Molecular biology
Archaea are of interest in biotechnology as they have unique biochemical features (e.g., enzymes of theromophiles, such as Taq polymerase, the “workhorse” enzyme of PCR) and are extremely stable at high temperatures. Archaea include metabolic oddities (e.g., extreme halophiles, which live in extremely salty environments), methanogens (which produce methane) and sulphur-dependant extreme thermophiles (which can live in extremely hot environments).

Archaea phyla
• Crenarchaeota
• Euryarchaeota
• Korarchaeota
• Nanoarchaeota
• Thaumarchaeota (recently proposed)

Archaea

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References in periodicals archive ?
It was first described as archaea but later showed eukaryotic characteristics, ScienceAlert (https://www.sciencealert.com/for-the-first-time-scientists-have-grown-the-strange-single-celled-lokiarchaeota-in-a-lab) reported.
Selenocysteine, pyrrolysine, and the unique energy metabolism of methanogenic archaea. Archaea 2010; 2010:453642.
Erguder TH, Boon N, Wittebolle L, Marzorati M, Verstraete W (2009) Environmental factors shaping the ecological niches of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 33, 855-869.
Perhaps, the most developed research area that connects Archaea to bioremediation lies within the degradation of organics in hypersaline environments.
In addition to the influence of age, the researchers found that sex was not a factor but that people with dry skin have more archaea. "Archaea might be important for the cleanup process under dry skin conditions," said one of the investigators.
Sylvan is focusing on bacteria and archaea; Edgcomb is working on fungi with guest investigator Gaetan Burgaud of the University of Brittany.
Using this approach, the team from Berkeley identified hundreds of new species of mainly archaea and bacteria.
"So, archaea dwelling near superheated volcanic vents would definitely have a selective advantage for surviving a catastrophe like this," wrote commenter bruzote.
elegans, social cell biology in microbe communities and Drosophila tumors, the Drosphila digestive tract, bacterial Mg2+ transport, SIR proteins, silent chromatin, prions, ciliary proteins, genetic techniques for archaea, nuclear control, and DNA repair.
Among the organisms targeted by GTI's qPCR testing are total bacteria, total archaea, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing archaea, acid-producing bacteria (acetic and butyric acid producers), iron-oxidizing bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and methanogens.