Within 5 years, WNV caused the largest epidemic of arboviral encephalitis
and became the most common etiologic agent of arboviral encephalitis
in the Western Hemisphere.
La Crosse virus (LACV), a California serogroup bunyavirus, is a leading cause of pediatric arboviral encephalitis
in the United States and is transmitted primarily by the eastern treehole mosquito (Aedes triseriatus) (1).
Emphasis is placed on laboratory and epidemiologic research to improve diagnosis, surveillance, prevention, and control of diseases of major public health importance such as Lyme disease, dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever, West Nile virus, yellow fever, arboviral encephalitis
, plague, and tularemia.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, mild cases of arboviral encephalitis
may present with only a slight fever and/or headache and body aches.
Vector-borne illnesses such as malaria and toxin-borne illnesses like Hunta viruses, Dengue Fever, Arboviral Encephalitis
, and cholera are shown to be effected by habitat change, the result of altered weather and warming.
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a highly virulent reemerging arboviral encephalitis
in humans; the disease is endemic to the eastern United States and the Gulf Coast (1,2).
West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in the Western Hemisphere in 1999 in New York City and has since caused seasonal epidemics of febrile illness and neurologic disease across the United States, where it is now the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis
Profound muscle weakness in the setting of high fever and mental confusion should ring warning bells for the new arboviral encephalitis
that struck the New York metropolitan area.
The findings underscore the importance of surveillance for, and diagnostic consideration of, arboviral encephalitis
in the United States and promotion of preventive measures such as local mosquito control and use of insect repellent.
In 2002, Cuyahoga County experienced its largest epidemic of arboviral encephalitis
and meningitis, yet only 1.9% of the county's population became infected during this first WNV transmission season.
Encephalitis of unspecified origin was the most common diagnosis, and arboviral encephalitis
was the least common.
The outbreak of human arboviral encephalitis
attributable to a mosquito-transmitted West Nile-like virus (WNLV) continues to wane in the Northeast (Figure 1).