Also acting in linoleic acid metabolism, the CYP2E1 and CYP2J2 enzymes use linoleate compound (linoleic acid) as a precursor to generate arachidonate
, which can be directed to the metabolism of AA .
In the COX-1 case of binding of arachidonic acid, an ionic bond is formed between Arg-120 and the carboxylate of arachidonate
. In COX-2 case however, instead of an ionic bond, a hydrogen bond is formed with Arg-120 and arachidonate
thus conferring less to the binding energy needed for the molecule to become bound [27, 28].
In lipid metabolism analysis, BJF decreased the levels of metabolites, such as lecithin, arachidonate
, PGE2, LTB4, and 11-epi-PGF2[alpha].
Enrichment of endothelial cell arachidonate
by lipid transfer from high density lipoproteins: relationship to prostaglandin I2 synthesis.
Respiratory tract diseases: After a careful inspection of our network, we find that a number of targets related to a large number of compounds that could possibly be developed to treat respiratory tract diseases, these include: Radix Isatidis, including Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 (T2), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gammareceptor (T13), arachidonate
5-lipoxygenase (T17), deltatype opioid receptor (T27),cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase A (T29), muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (T37), beta-2 adrenergic receptor (T39), tumor necrosis factor (T44), mu-type opioid receptor (T49), mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (T58), transcription factor AP-1 (T60) and E-selectin (T62).
The mRNA and hormone levels of arachidonate
acid pathways were studied via quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and ELISA.
It is found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, a pro-inflammatory mediator, and thus anti- inflammatory action might be mediated partly through this mechanism.19 TQ also inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGEs) and LTs by blocking the cycloxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LO) pathways of arachidonate
metabolism, and is thus responsible for anti- inflammatory activity.20 TQ highly reduces the levels of IL- 1AY, IL-6, TNF-a and interferon gamma (IFN-) which are considered to be important pro-inflammatory mediators.21
In addition, diclofenac appears to reduce the intracellular concentration of free arachidonate
in leukocytes, perhaps by altering the release or uptake of the fatty acids (Reiss et al., (1978).
Black, "Differential expression of arachidonate
5-lipoxygenase transcripts in human brain tumors: evidence for the expression of a multitranscript family," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Acting in concert with perinuclear membrane 5,-lipoxygenase- (5-LO-) activating protein (FLAP), arachidonate
is oxygenated by 5-LO to [LTA.sub.4], which undergoes sequential conversion to [LTC.sub.4], [LTD.sub.4], and [LTE.sub.4] mediated by the enzymes [LTC.sub.4] synthase, y-glutamyl leukotrienase, and [LTD.sub.4] dipeptidase, respectively [1-3].