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the systematic, rigorous investigation of a situation or problem in order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge. Research in health care takes place in a variety of areas and has many potential benefits; the areas include professional practice, environmental issues affecting health, vitality, treatments, theory development, health care economics, and many others. Health care research can be conducted by one group of professionals for generation of knowledge specific to that group, or by a diverse group of researchers collaborating on a given health care problem.
applied research scientific investigations conducted to answer specific clinical questions or solve practice-related problems.
basic research scientific investigation that involves the generation of new knowledge or development of new theories; its results often cannot be applied directly to specific clinical situations.
correlational research the systematic investigation of relationships among two or more variables, without necessarily determining cause and effect.
descriptive research research that provides an accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular individual, situation, or group. These studies are a means of discovering new meaning, describing what exists, determining the frequency with which something occurs, and categorizing information.
ethnographic research the investigation of a culture through an in-depth study of the members of the culture; it involves the systematic collection, description, and analysis of data for development of theories of cultural behavior.
experimental research objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables.
exploratory research studies that are merely formative, for the purpose of gaining new insights, discovering new ideas, and increasing knowledge of phenomena.
grounded theory research a research approach designed to discover what problems exist in a given social environment and how the persons involved handle them; it involves formulation, testing, and reformulation of propositions until a theory is developed.
historical research research involving analysis of events that occurred in the remote or recent past.
phenomenological research an inductive, descriptive research approach developed from phenomenological philosophy; its aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the person.
qualitative research research dealing with phenomena that are difficult or impossible to quantify mathematically, such as beliefs, meanings, attributes, and symbols; it may involve content analysis.
quantitative research research involving formal, objective information about the world, with mathematical quantification; it can be used to describe test relationships and to examine cause and effect relationships.
applied researchTargeted research that applies results to a specific problem—e.g., studying the effects of different methods of antihypertensive therapy on rates of myocardial infarction. Applied research data are used in the real world, and often ask questions raised by policy makers.
Evaluation research, action research.
applied researchClinical research Research that applies results to a specific problem–eg studying the effects of different methods of law enforcement on crime rates
research(ri-serch') (re'serch?) [Fr. recercher, to go looking]
Scientific study, investigation, or experimentation to establish facts and analyze their significance.
applied researchTransitional research.
Research based mainly on observation of the patient rather than on laboratory work. It is often used to determine the safety and effectiveness of treatments, the natural history of disease, or the conditions that predispose to illness.
comparative effectiveness research
Any head-to-head study of alternative solutions to managing a disease, esp. when such a study examines a broadly representative population of patients and follows them for a long enough time to determine meaningful outcomes. Its goal is to identify which treatment produces the best clinical outcomes for most patients, rather than which is better than a placebo or which influences a laboratory test or other surrogate marker without having an impact on the actual health or longevity of patients.
1. Research on human subjects that poses minimal risk, e.g., anonymous surveys, observation in a public place, or analysis of secondary data.
2. Any research investigation that does not need to follow standard protocols or provide the usually expected protection to its subjects.
Research done principally in the laboratory.
A long-term study of a cohort (a group of subjects born during a particular time period) that determines the natural history of an illness or the enduring effects of a treatment.
Research concerned with any phase of medical science.
A formal, systematic, and rigorous process of inquiry used by nurses to generate and test the concepts and propositions that constitute middle-range nursing theories, which are derived from or linked with a conceptual model of nursing. The theories include: Grand: Health belief model; Transactional model of stress and coping; Life process interactive person-environment model; Roy adaptation model; Interacting systems conceptual framework. Middle-Range: Theory of self-care deficit; Theory of health promotion; Theory of self-regulation; Theory of uncertainty in illness; Theory of acute pain management; Theory of families, children, and chronic illness. Practice: Theory of interpersonal relations; Theory of representativeness heuristic; Theory of communicative action; Theory of clinical reasoning in nursing practice; Theory of end-of-life decision making.
An analysis of the value of provided health care services.See: outcome criteria
A community process in which a group of people takes an active role in defining their own health needs and devising means to meet them, including setting priorities for public health, controlling health-enhancing techniques, and evaluating results.
Research involving the use of the fertilized egg from its unicellular zygote stage until the embryo stage (the 14th day following fertilization). This includes studies of in vitro fertilization, conception, gene therapy, and studies of cancer.
Scientific research that applies knowledge from fundamental research into, for example, biology, chemistry, or physics, to the solution of problems in agriculture, engineering, health care, industry, or pharmacology.Synonym: applied research