apoplast


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apoplast

  1. a PLASTID which lacks CHROMATOPHORES. The adjective apoplastic is applied to individual protozoans that lack colour in a group which is generally coloured. Apoplasty occurs when cell division is so fast as to outpace plastid division, producing individuals which are formed without plastids.
  2. those areas of the plant that are outside the SYMPLAST, comprising the parts outside the PLASMALEMMA, such as cell walls, intercellular spaces and the dead tissues of XYLEM.
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Moreover, uptake of hexoses by developing kernels from the apoplast is also an active process involving H+/hexose co transport.
IAC Fantastico' suggests that it has physiological mechanisms of tolerance, such as: exclusion mechanisms, in which Al is prevented from reaching its toxicity sites in the plant by the formation of organo-mineral complexes or chelates with organic compounds of low molecular weight, exuded in the region of the rhizosphere or apoplast by the plants; internal or repair mechanism, which allows the penetration of Al in the cell, but its phytotoxic action is neutralized by enzymes or even isolated inside the vacuole, where the complexation of the cations occurs (Van & Masuda, 2004).
Effects of White, Blue, Red-Light and Darkness on Ph of the Apoplast in the Samanea Pulvinus.
In vascular plants under water stress, ROS production has been detected in apoplast, xylem vessels, chloroplasts and mitochondria (Mittler et al.
Polygalacturonase-mediated dissolution and depolymerization of pectins in solutions mimicking the pH and mineral composition of tomato fruit apoplast.
Contribution of apoplast andsymplast to short term Ni uptake by maize andLeptoplax emarginata roots.
The former is characterized by the distribution of hyphae throughout the cortex, extracellularly, spreading along the apoplast, and the formation of arbuscules.
AA is also considered an important molecule against ozone due to its occurrence in the apoplast, once this pollutant enters the plant predominantly through the stomata and reacts immediately with water intensifying the ROS formation.
A possible mechanism for detoxification of Al consists of: Al uptake through Al-F (fluoride) or Al-citrate complexes and storage in large intercellular spaces in the leaf apoplast, together with Si (silicon) or Aloxalate complexes (Mengel & Kirkby 1982, Klumpp et al.
The apoplast is considered the first line of defense against pollutants, where ozone can be detoxified before it reaches the leaf cell surface and causes the damage that interferes with photosynthesis and reduces yields.
The temporal correlation of changes in apoplast pH and growth rate in maize coleoptile segments.