apoplast


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apoplast

  1. a PLASTID which lacks CHROMATOPHORES. The adjective apoplastic is applied to individual protozoans that lack colour in a group which is generally coloured. Apoplasty occurs when cell division is so fast as to outpace plastid division, producing individuals which are formed without plastids.
  2. those areas of the plant that are outside the SYMPLAST, comprising the parts outside the PLASMALEMMA, such as cell walls, intercellular spaces and the dead tissues of XYLEM.
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Under low pH and high [Al.sup.3+] wheat root tips exude malate and citrate to the apoplast and rhizosphere.
Evidence for the consequences of a barrier to solute diffusion between the apoplast and vascular bundles in sugarcane stalk tissue.
Moreover, uptake of hexoses by developing kernels from the apoplast is also an active process involving H+/hexose co transport.
Hernandez JA, Ferrer MA, Jimenez A, Barcelo AR, Sevilla F (2001) Antioxidant systems and O*-2 /[H.sub.2][O.sub.2] production in the apoplast of pea leaves.
'IAC Fantastico', is possibly related to the mechanisms of defense to Al toxicity, since elements like P can help in the formation of insoluble compounds, such as [Al.sub.4][(P[O.sub.4]).sub.3], retarding the entry of Al in the apoplast (Costa et al., 2014).
These mechanisms lead to acidification of the apoplast and the activation of cell wall degrading exo-enzymes, making it more susceptible to the vacuolar turgor pressure and consequently, to cell elongation.
Effects of Salicylic Acid and Cold Treatments on Protein Levels and on the Activities of Antioxidants Enzymes in the Apoplast of Winter Wheat Leaves', Phytochemistry, 67: 710-15.
Popova, Effects of Salicylic Acid and Cold Treatment on Protein Levels and on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Apoplast of Winter Wheat Leaves, Phytochem., 67, 710 (2006).
[36] reported that Al accumulation in the beans primarily and predominantly occurred in the root apoplast (30-90 % of the total absorbed Al) of peripheral cells, and is only very slowly translocated to more central tissues [37].
Fortunately, salt-tolerant plants have evolved some special mechanisms of salt tolerance which are to minimize the accumulation of toxic ions in plant tissue, partition them in the apoplast and vacuole, increase the synthesis of osmotic adjustment substances such as proline and betaine for maintaining tissue water status, and enhance antioxidant capacity to prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress [7].
Effects of White, Blue, Red-Light and Darkness on Ph of the Apoplast in the Samanea Pulvinus.