Under low pH and high [Al.sup.3+] wheat root tips exude malate and citrate to the apoplast
Evidence for the consequences of a barrier to solute diffusion between the apoplast
and vascular bundles in sugarcane stalk tissue.
Moreover, uptake of hexoses by developing kernels from the apoplast
is also an active process involving H+/hexose co transport.
Hernandez JA, Ferrer MA, Jimenez A, Barcelo AR, Sevilla F (2001) Antioxidant systems and O*-2 /[H.sub.2][O.sub.2] production in the apoplast
of pea leaves.
'IAC Fantastico', is possibly related to the mechanisms of defense to Al toxicity, since elements like P can help in the formation of insoluble compounds, such as [Al.sub.4][(P[O.sub.4]).sub.3], retarding the entry of Al in the apoplast
(Costa et al., 2014).
These mechanisms lead to acidification of the apoplast
and the activation of cell wall degrading exo-enzymes, making it more susceptible to the vacuolar turgor pressure and consequently, to cell elongation.
Effects of Salicylic Acid and Cold Treatments on Protein Levels and on the Activities of Antioxidants Enzymes in the Apoplast
of Winter Wheat Leaves', Phytochemistry, 67: 710-15.
Carboxylesterases in the leaf apoplast
of wheat seedlings catalyze the hydrolysis of herbicide esters and are substrate specific.
Popova, Effects of Salicylic Acid and Cold Treatment on Protein Levels and on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Apoplast
of Winter Wheat Leaves, Phytochem., 67, 710 (2006).
 reported that Al accumulation in the beans primarily and predominantly occurred in the root apoplast
(30-90 % of the total absorbed Al) of peripheral cells, and is only very slowly translocated to more central tissues .
Fortunately, salt-tolerant plants have evolved some special mechanisms of salt tolerance which are to minimize the accumulation of toxic ions in plant tissue, partition them in the apoplast
and vacuole, increase the synthesis of osmotic adjustment substances such as proline and betaine for maintaining tissue water status, and enhance antioxidant capacity to prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress .
Effects of White, Blue, Red-Light and Darkness on Ph of the Apoplast
in the Samanea Pulvinus.