Several approaches have been used in removal of the apical tumor by ophthalmologists and neurosurgeons for decades.
Furthermore, a long-standing apical tumor may become more adherent to the apical structure, increasing dissected difficulty and risk.
Thus, many surgeons recommend neurosurgical approaches for removing apical tumors; the transcranial approach was the preferred choice for most neurosurgeons.
The lateral orbitotomy was a widely used approach in orbital surgery and especially suitable for orbital apical tumors [11, 12].
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the efficacy, complication rates, and visual outcomes of treating small and medium choroidal melanomas with 1251 plaque radiotherapy with a prescription dose to the actual apical tumor height.
Based upon early studies, the minimum apical tumor treatment dose for plaque radiotherapy has been near 85 Gy.