Identification and characterization of a putative human iodide transporter located at the apical membrane
In this instance, scientists studied Apical Membrane
Antigen 1 (AMA1), a protein found on the cell membrane of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite causing the most deadly malaria.
Because bicarbonate ions are too large to be transported across the paracellular pathway (between the cells), and there are no transport mechanisms on the apical membrane
capable of transporting bicarbonate ions, the ions must be converted to some other form for transport.
Cloning and expression of apical membrane
water channel of rat kidney collecting tubule.
To successfully study this ion channel target, we had to bring the bioassay to the target where it is most comfortable, the apical membrane
of a polarized epithelium simulated in in vitro 3D culture," continued Dr.
AQP6vs, AQP2 and/or AQP6ub are also expressed in these epithelial cells and are translocated to the apical membrane
in response to arginine vasotocin, thereby regulating water absorption/reabsorption.
In contrast, the salt-secreting gill epithelial cells of brine shrimp, Artemia salina (Copeland 1967), the epithelial cells of the pereopodal discoid osmoregulatory organ of esturine amphoid, Melita setiflagella (Kikuchi & Matsumasa 1995), and the epithelial cells of the anal papillae of the saltwater mosquito larva, Aedes campestris (Meredith & Phillips 1973), are characterized by shallow apical membrane
infoldings that are not closely associated with mitochondria.
In order to secrete chloride across the apical membrane
of the epithelial cells, the basolateral membrane has to establish a driving force for anion efflux via anion channels (e.
Aqp8ab and Aqp8b are both localized at the apical membrane
of the intestinal epithelium, but while Aqp8ab also extends along the lateral membrane, the third paralog, Aqp8aa, is restricted to a subapical area (Madsen et al.
These transporters are expressed in the apical membranes
of enterocytes; TRPM-6 is also expressed in the apical membrane
of the distal convoluted tubule and is involved in magnesium reabsorption (3).
P-gp is expressed in a variety of normal tissues such as the apical membrane
of blood-brain barrier (BBB), small intestine and kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, protecting the body from xenobiotics and regulating drug absorption and disposition (Fenner et al.
The apical membrane
surface increased and at times projected into the external medium.