In contrast, the salt-secreting gill epithelial cells of brine shrimp, Artemia salina (Copeland 1967), the epithelial cells of the pereopodal discoid osmoregulatory organ of esturine amphoid, Melita setiflagella (Kikuchi & Matsumasa 1995), and the epithelial cells of the anal papillae of the saltwater mosquito larva, Aedes campestris (Meredith & Phillips 1973), are characterized by shallow apical membrane
infoldings that are not closely associated with mitochondria.
In order to secrete chloride across the apical membrane
of the epithelial cells, the basolateral membrane has to establish a driving force for anion efflux via anion channels (e.
Aqp8ab and Aqp8b are both localized at the apical membrane
of the intestinal epithelium, but while Aqp8ab also extends along the lateral membrane, the third paralog, Aqp8aa, is restricted to a subapical area (Madsen et al.
These transporters are expressed in the apical membranes
of enterocytes; TRPM-6 is also expressed in the apical membrane
of the distal convoluted tubule and is involved in magnesium reabsorption (3).
P-gp is expressed in a variety of normal tissues such as the apical membrane
of blood-brain barrier (BBB), small intestine and kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, protecting the body from xenobiotics and regulating drug absorption and disposition (Fenner et al.
The apical membrane
surface increased and at times projected into the external medium.
The dIgA-pIgR complex is transported to the apical membrane
and released to mucosal surface as SIgA.
Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane
antigen 1 (AMA1) is a surface protein expressed during the asexual blood stage of P.
The active ingredient (antigen) is a membrane protein called apical membrane
antigen 1, from the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.
An extensive endocytic apparatus, located in the apical membrane
of proximal tubule cells, plays a key role in the reabsorption and degradation of glomerular-filtered albumin and low-molecular-weight proteins (Marshansky et al.
Pharmacological regulation of gastric acid secretion in the apical membrane
of parietal cells; a new target for antisecretory drugs.
Whole membrane and/or desmosomal staining were seen only in a few epithelia (transitional and stratified squamous), while in normal polarized epithelia such as gastrointestinal tract epithelium and ductal epithelium, RAAG12 expression was restricted primarily to the cytoplasm and apical membrane