apical foramen


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foramen

 [fo-ra´men] (pl. fora´mina) (L.)
a natural opening or passage, especially one into or through a bone.
aortic foramen aortic hiatus.
apical foramen an opening at or near the apex of the root of a tooth.
auditory foramen, external the external acoustic meatus.
auditory foramen, internal the passage for the auditory (vestibulocochlear) and facial nerves in the petrous part of the temporal bone.
cecal foramen (foramen cae´cum)
1. a blind opening between the frontal crest and the crista galli.
2. a depression on the dorsum of the tongue at the median sulcus.
condyloid foramen, anterior hypoglossal canal.
condyloid foramen, posterior condylar canal.
epiploic foramen omental foramen.
ethmoidal foramina, fora´mina ethmoida´lia small openings in the ethmoid bone at the junction of the medial wall with the roof of the orbit, the anterior transmitting the nasal branch of the ophthalmic nerve and the anterior ethmoid vessels, the posterior transmitting the posterior ethmoid vessels.
incisive foramen one of the openings of the incisive canals into the incisive fossa of the hard palate.
interventricular foramen a passage from the third to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
intervertebral foramen a passage for a spinal nerve and vessels formed by notches on the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae.
jugular foramen an opening formed by the jugular notches of the temporal and occipital bones.
foramen mag´num a large opening in the anterior inferior part of the occipital bone, between the cranial cavity and spinal canal.
mastoid foramen an opening in the temporal bone behind the mastoid process.
foramen of Monro interventricular foramen.
obturator foramen the large opening between the pubic bone and the ischium.
omental foramen the opening connecting the greater and the lesser peritoneal sacs, situated below and behind the porta hepatis; called also epiploic foramen.
optic foramen optic canal.
foramen ova´le
1. the septal opening in the fetal heart that provides a communication between the atria; it normally closes at birth. Failure to close results in an atrial septal defect.
2. an aperture in the great wing of the sphenoid for vessels and nerves.
The fully developed embryonic heart showing the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus. From Copstead and Banasik, 2000.
petrosal foramen, foramen petro´sum a small opening sometimes present behind the foramen ovale for transmission of the lesser petrosal nerve.
foramen rotun´dum a round opening in the great wing of the sphenoid for the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve.
sacral foramina, anterior eight passages (four on each side) on the pelvic surface of the sacrum for the anterior branches of the sacral nerves.
sacral foramina, posterior eight passages (four on each side) on the dorsal surface of the sacrum for the posterior branches of the sacral nerves.
Scarpa's foramen an opening behind the upper medial incisor, for the nasopalatine nerve.
sciatic foramen either of two openings (the greater and smaller sciatic foramina), formed by the sacrotuberal and sacrospinal ligaments in the sciatic notch of the hip bone.
sphenopalatine foramen a space between the orbital and sphenoidal processes of the palatine bone, opening into the nasal cavity and transmitting the sphenopalatine artery and the nasal nerves.
spinous foramen a hole in the great wing of the sphenoid for the middle meningeal artery.
supraorbital foramen passage in the frontal bone for the supraorbital vessels and nerve; often present as a notch bridged only by fibrous tissue.
thebesian foramina minute openings in the walls of the right atrium through which the smallest cardiac veins (thebesian veins) empty into the heart.
transverse foramen the passage in either transverse process of a cervical vertebra that, in the upper six vertebrae, transmits the vertebral vessels.
vena cava foramen an opening in the diaphragm for the inferior vena cava and some branches of the right vagus nerve.
foramen veno´sum an opening occasionally found medial to the foramen ovale of the sphenoid, for the passage of a vein from the cavernous sinus.
vertebral foramen the large opening in a vertebra formed by its body and its arch.
foramen of Vesalius foramen venosum.
Weitbrecht's foramen a foramen in the capsule of the shoulder joint.
foramen of Winslow epiploic foramen.

apical foramen

The opening in the end of the root of a tooth through which the blood, lymphatic, and nerve supplies pass to reach the dental pulp.
See also: foramen
References in periodicals archive ?
In open chamber model, there is equalization of atmospheric pressure and pressure inside vial in open chamber apparatus results in a high compliance; thus, there is less resistance offered to the extrusion of irrigant through the apical foramen, and this might represent the clinical condition where the destruction of cortical bone has established a pathway from the apical foramen towards soft tissues, oral cavity, or maxillary sinus [19].
The results show that the most common shape of maxillary premolars physiological apical foramen was oval (72.19% on average), which is similar to what was observed In other studies (between 67 and 70%) (Marroquin et al.; Arora & Tewari; Ayranci et al.).
The working length (WL) was determined by inserting a size 10 K file (Mani Inc.) into each root canal until the file tip was just visible at the apical foramen. Then, 1mm was subtracted from the measured length.
The working length of each tooth was determined by inserting a size 15 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) into the canal until the tip of the file was minimally visible at the apical foramen. The working length was then set as 1 mm less than that of the canal length.
Root canal length was determined with a size 15 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) introduced Passively into the canal until its tip was just visible at the major apical foramen. Then, using a dental operating microscope, the real canal length was recorded (average length 22 mm) and the working length (WL) was calculated by subtracting 1 mm from this measurement.
Electronic apex locators are more reliable when used in pre-enlarged canals because instruments are more likely to contact dentin as they approach the apical foramen. When the clinician does establish a working length, it will be more accurate as it occurs after a more direct path to the terminus has been established (4).
Several studies have shown a combined accuracy of 90% within [+ or -] 0.5mm of the apical foramen in different clinical conditions using the Root ZX [Ounsi and Naaman, 1999].
Kolanu et al (2014)31 studied the influence of critical diameter of apical foramen and file size using EAL in working length determination and found that the accuracy of the EAL decreases as apical foramen widens.
Two apical foramina were found in 23.3 %, a single apical foramen was observed in 15.5 % and three apical foramina were present in 2.2 % of these teeth.
At 6 and 12 months, the periapical pathology has noticeably improved, then healed, and increased dentinal wall thickness and an almost closed apical foramen can be observed (Figure 1(d)).
Main advantages of Apex locators are that these measure the root canal length to apical foramen, not to the radiographic apex.