apical dominance


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apical dominance

a condition in plants where the stem apex prevents the development of side shoots from lateral buds near the apex. The dominance is controlled by the presence of high concentrations of plant hormones (AUXINS) at the apex, produced by the apical bud. Further down the stem the auxin concentration is reduced and strong lateral branches are formed. Pruning of the apical bud in, for example, rose bushes, causes lateral branches to develop.
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This means that the clones that repair the damaged area by quickly reestablishing apical dominance, or by evading attack, will grow more.
Low storage temperatures (<10[degrees]C) favor dormancy and reduce apical dominance in tubers, while high temperatures (>25[degrees]C) accelerate sprouting but do not favor breaking of apical dominance (BISOGNIN et al., 2008a; MULLER et al., 2010).
Microshoots were highly produced from the shoot bud that was longitudinally incised prior to culture in the multiplication media due to the elimination of apical dominance. Production of high quality and healthy vigorous plantlets with low necrosis problem and vitrified shoots, and also with a higher chlorophyll content, have been established in the multiplication medium enriched with 1 g/L activated charcoal and glutamine.
Strong apical dominance in apples coupled with the low chilling requirements of the terminal bud combine to mask chilling effects on axillary buds (NAOR et al., 2003).
Increasing number of branches per plant as result of foliar application of PGRs may be attributed to the high level of these retardants accompanied by reducing the level of IAA and GA3 which lead to inhibition of main stem apical dominance (Jindal et al.
Besides interacting with auxins in the control of apical dominance, cytokinins (Greek cyto- cell + kine- to cut) are involved in cell division.
In the plants with strong apical dominance, removal of the main shoots is often necessary to stimulate axillary growth.
"They need to learn apical dominance," says Oregon conifer wizard Don Howse.
Transported downward, auxin is known to have a role in controlling apical dominance, stem elongation, tropisms, and root development.
Tension wood is formed by woody dicotyledons to generate the force necessary for reorientation of branches and stems following gravistimulation or loss of apical dominance. However, tension wood causes sawn timber to split, shrink or collapse.