Working lengths for the palatal and DB canals were determined with an apex locator
(Root ZX; Morita, Tokyo, Japan) and confirmed radiographically.
This might be due to not using apex locator
and taking multiple periapical radiographs in the determination of working length in our student clinics.
MM control: Endo motor with torque and speed control + integrated apex locator
While waiting for the radiograph to be developed the apex locator
was used to establish the root canal length.
NSK created SmartLogic, a next-generation Apex Locator
which removes virtually all signal in- terference from the root canal itself to precisely detect the location of the apex.
An apex locator
was used to estimate the working lengths prior to establishing a working length radiographically.
Apical line indicator on the LED of the apex locator
was adjusted at 0.5 position.
A MMC 15 file retraces the canal path, frees the foramen from any obstruction and activates the irrigation solution.30 This verification of the apical anatomy is particularly important when using a single in- strument method, since over instrumentation leads to significant post-operative symptomatol- ogy.31 The use of an electronic apex locator
is highly recommended32, especially regarding their current precision after elimination of con- straints in the coronal third.
ProPex II (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) is a multi-frequency based apex locator
which is based on the same principles of the other modern devices which use multiple frequencies to determine root canal length.
Advanced techniques of working length determination include digital radiography and electronic apex locator
. The objective of the present study was to juxtapose the difference between the precision of working length taken by digital radiographs and third generation electronic apex locator
and correspond it with directly measured root canal lengths after extraction of the same teeth.