, vaspin, visfatin and adiponectin in large for gestational age infants with insulin resistance.
The four genes network (figure 2C) was composed of the genes that codify for the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), aquaporin 1 (AQP1), the acidic form of the complement factor 4 (c4a), and the apelin
Maternal and cord blood apelin
, resistin and visfatin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus.
Association of apelin
, endoglin and endocan with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.
Adipose tissue also functions as an endocrine organ.11 Adipocytokines can be divided into two groups: "insulin resistance inducing factors," such as resistin, TNF-[alpha], and interleukin 6 (IL-6), and "insulin sensitivity inducing factors," such as leptin, adiponectin, apelin
, and the recently identified visfatin.12 These cytokines are considered to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance and cardiovascular events.13,14 Vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin) is a novel adipocytokine that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism.15
is a bioactive peptide and an endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor (APJ).
Sarcopenia, the age-related degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, quality, and strength, which may lead to frailty and disability in the elderly, may be slowed by exercise, likely through the action of apelin
(2015) studied the role of endogenous apelin
analogues: mitochondrial ROS inhibition and cardiometabolic protection in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury.
Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, galectin-3, and apelin
for the evaluation of patients with acute heart failure.
Some have been described to exert antiinflammatory and cardioprotective effects (i.e., adiponectin, omentin, and apelin
), whereas others have been suggested to have proinflammatory properties and to impair cardiovascular function (i.e., leptin, resistin, and fatty-acid-binding protein-4) (27).
Li et al., "Changes and relations of circulating visfatin, apelin
, and resistin levels in normal, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetic subjects," Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol.