apelin


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apelin

A peptide encoded by APLN on chromosome Xq25, which is a ligand for the G-coupled APJ receptor, and is expressed on a wide range of tissues including heart, lung, kidney, liver, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, adrenal glands, and vascular endothelium.
Activities
• Angiogenesis Activates cell transduction cascade, leading to endothelial cell proliferation and formation of new blood vessels.
• Vasodilation Activates endothelial receptors which release NO, a vasodilator.
• Cardiogenesis Regulates embryonic cell migration leading to the formation of cardiomyocytes.
• Cardiovascular control Stimulates cardiac contractility, cardiac remodelling.
• Homeostasis Regulates hypothalamic messaging for pituitary hormone release, food and water intake.
• Gastrointestinal Inhibits histamine release by enterochromaffin-like cells, reducing acid secretion by parietal cells.
• Endocrine Regulates serum glucose via a relationship with insulin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Apelin and arginine vasopressin (AVP), the key stress hormones in ruminants, were reported to stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone [21-23], and subsequently cortisol was also demonstrated to stimulate GH secretion [14,17].
The product of this gene is a protein called the apelin receptor.
2012) Differences in plasma apelin and visfatin levels between patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects and response after acute hyperglycemia and insulin administration.
The project builds on work at the university to understand the role that apelin receptors play in cardiovascular diseases.
Utility of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, galectin-3, and apelin for the evaluation of patients with acute heart failure.
Apelin activates the expression of inflammatory cytokines in microglial BV2 cells via PI-3K/Akt and MEK/Erk pathways.
Among these many adipokines includes; adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, adipsin, apelin, cheperin and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4) [2,4].
The presence of the peptides apelin, ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in the human breast milk, and the lowering of their levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Objective: To investigate the role of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and apelin in the assessment of right ventricular dysfunction in acute pulmonary embolism.
Serum oxidative stress, visfatin and apelin in healthy women and those with premenstrual syndrome," Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol.
Reduction of arteria stiffness by exercise training is associated with increasing plasma apelin level in middle-aged and older adults.
The team also found that ELABELA uses a receptor previously believed to be specific to APELIN, a blood-pressure controlling hormone.