An archaeological survey was conducted for the Forest Service by the university, but Cummings claims this survey is insufficient and misses the point, especially in the case of Apaches, who do not leave physical evidence of their shrines.
But the turbulent history of the Apaches, and the appointment of judges by politicians who unanimously favor the observatory, make some individuals skeptical of the Apache's chances for a fair hearing in Arizona.
Graham controversy pits astronomers who revere the skies through technology against a small mammal with a cloudy future, and against Apaches who engage the heavens with only their eyes and hearts.
Thus was formed the Apache Survival Coalition, with Davis as chairperson.
As Apache Burnette Rope stresses, "If the spirits leave, we don't know where they'll go.
It's not the one Kareem Abdul-Jabbar thought he once knew, the Fort Apache portrayed on ``The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin'' television show he watched while growing up in Harlem during the 1950s.
Three years ago, Abdul-Jabbar came to the remote White Mountain Apache Reservation to research the Buffalo Soldiers - African-American cavalry troopers who served on the Old West frontier - for his book, ``Black Profiles in Courage.
But while Apache teams are known for their basketball excellence, that success hasn't been duplicated off the court.
Alchesay - named for an Apache chief who earned the Congressional Medal of Honor - had 115 graduates last spring.
Just as he discovered the Fort Apache depicted in ``Rin Tin Tin'' didn't exist, he wants Native American kids to realize the perception that they are inferior also is an illusion.
When he first visited Fort Apache, which has housed the all-African-American Ninth and 10th cavalries, he struck up a friendship with Edgar Perry, whose grandfather was an Apache scout.