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Related to aortic mineralization: Aortic valve stenosis


pertaining to the aorta.
aortic arch syndrome any of a group of disorders adding to occlusion of the arteries arising from the aortic arch; such occlusion may be caused by atherosclerosis, arterial embolism, or other conditions. See also pulseless disease.
aortic septal defect a congenital anomaly in which there is abnormal communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery just above the semilunar valves.


Relating to the aorta or the aortic orifice of the left ventricle of the heart.
Synonym(s): aortal


Relating to the aorta or the aortic orifice of the left ventricle of the heart.
Synonym(s): aortal.


(ā-ort′ă ) (ā-ort′ē) plural.aortaeaortas [L. aorta fr Gr. aortē, the large artery]
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The main trunk of the arterial system of the body. aortic (ā-or′tĭk), adjective

The aorta is about 3 cm in diameter at its origin in the upper surface of the left ventricle. It passes upward as the ascending aorta, turns backward and to the left (arch of the aorta) at about the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra, and then passes downward as the thoracic aorta to the diaphragm, and below the diaphragm as the abdominal aorta. The latter terminates at its division into the two common iliac arteries. At the junction of the aorta and the left ventricle is the aortic semilunar valve, which contains three cusps. This valve opens when the ventricle contracts and is closed by the backup of blood when the ventricle relaxes. See: illustration

The divisions of the aorta are as follows:

Ascending aorta (two branches): Two coronary arteries (right and left) provide blood supply to the myocardium.

Aortic arch (three branches): The brachiocephalic artery divides into the right subclavian artery, which provides blood to the right arm and other areas, and right common carotid artery, which supplies the right side of the head and neck. The left common carotid artery supplies the left side of the head and neck. The left subclavian artery provides blood for the left arm and portion of the thoracic area.

Thoracic aorta: Two or more bronchial arteries provide blood for bronchi. Esophageal arteries provide blood to the esophagus. Pericardial arteries supply the pericardium. Nine pairs of intercostal arteries supply blood for intercostal areas. Mediastinal branches supply lymph glands and the posterior mediastinum. Superior phrenic arteries supply the diaphragm.

Abdominal aorta: The celiac artery supplies the stomach, liver, and spleen. The superior mesenteric artery supplies all of the small intestine except the superior portion of the duodenum. The inferior mesenteric artery supplies all of the colon and rectum except the right half of the transverse colon. The middle suprarenal branches supply the adrenal (suprarenal) glands. The renal arteries supply the kidneys, ureters, and adrenals. The testicular arteries supply the testicles and ureter. The ovarian arteries (which correspond to internal spermatic arteries of the male) supply the ovaries, part of the ureters, and the uterine tubes. The inferior phrenic arteries supply the diaphragm and esophagus. The lumbar arteries supply the lumbar and psoas muscles and part of the abdominal wall musculature. The middle sacral artery supplies the sacrum and coccyx. The right and left common iliac arteries supply the lower pelvic and abdominal areas and the lower extremities.


pertaining to or emanating from the aorta. See also aortic arch.

aortic aneurysm
occurs most often in dogs, where it is caused by Spirocerca lupi larvae, turkeys and primates, causing dyspnea, cyanosis and coughing. May be congenital affecting the aortic trunk and the arch sometimes associated with aneurysm of an aortic sinus. See also copper nutritional deficiency.
aortic aneurysm, inherited
see inherited aortic aneurysm.
aortic annulus fibrosus
the fibrous ring in the wall of the root of the aorta. In the bovine heart the ring carries the ossa cordis (see os2 cordis).
aortic base rupture
rupture of the vessel just above the semilunar valves.
aortic bodies
small neurovascular structures on either side of the aorta in the region of the aortic arch. The left body is located at the angle between the left subclavian artery and the aorta, and the right at the junction of the right subclavian and right common carotid arteries. They contain chemical receptors which send impulses through the afferent branches of the vagus nerve and are involved in regulating respiration so as to ensure an appropriate partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood.
aortic body tumors
single or multiple nodules within the pericardial sac near the base of the heart. Malignant tumors may invade the anterior mediastinum. Called also heart base tumor.
aortic bulb
the dilated part of the aorta at its origin, caused by the swellings of the aortic sinuses.
aortic coarctation
constriction of the aorta at the site of entry of the ductus arteriosus causing a syndrome similar to that of stenosis of the aortic valve.
aortic cystic medionecrosis
pools of ground substance within the elastic media of the aorta. May predispose to arterial aneurysm but this material is present in the aortas of normal horses.
aortic depressor nerve
pressure receptors in the aortic arch and thoracic aorta which assist in maintaining circulatory equilibrium by communicating pressure changes through the aortic depressor nerve, an afferent branch of the vagus nerve; stimulation causes heart slowing and vasodilation.
aortic dextraposition
the aorta receives blood from the right ventricle. There are a number of variations of the basic defect. The common one is the aorta overriding the septum, which is defective, so that the aorta receives blood from both ventricles. The clinical syndrome includes dyspnea and cyanosis from birth, usually with a loud systolic murmur. Affected animals are not viable.
aortic embolism
occurs in cats in association with feline cardiomyopathy and rarely in dogs. Acute pain with paresis to paralysis in the hindlegs, cold, cyanotic feet and no femoral pulse are signs of the condition.
aortic hiatus
an opening in the diaphragm through which the aorta, thoracic duct, the right and/or left azygos veins pass.
aortic-ilial embolism
see iliac artery thrombosis.
aortic mineralization
is one of the early lesions in poisoning by plants that induce mineralization of tissues, e.g. solanummalacoxylon. In combination with lesions in the myocardium causes a syndrome of congestive heart failure.
aortic nerve
see cardiac depressor nerve.
aortic palpation
the aorta is easily palpable per rectum in cattle and horses; valuable as a clinical sign only in cases of thrombosis at the bifurcation; incision at this point has been used as a means of euthanasia in an emergency.
aortic-pulmonary window
an anomaly of the aorta in which there is an opening between the ascending portion of the aorta and the pulmonary artery; clinical signs are similar to those of patent ductus arteriosus, but surgical correction is much more difficult.
aortic regurgitation
see valvular regurgitation.
aortic root
the part of the aorta attached to the atrioventricular fibrous rings and myocardium.
aortic rupture
1. in horses is caused by weakening of the wall of the aorta by migrating strongyle larvae. In cattle the cause may be onchocerciasis, in pigs experimental diets deficient in copper. Sudden death results from cardiac tamponade or dissecting aneurysm into the ventricular muscle.
2. sudden death in growing turkeys due to dissecting aneurysmal rupture of the aorta and death due to internal hemorrhage; the cause is unknown. Copper deficiency is suspected as a cause in several animal species.
aortic sac
the merged ventral aortae of the embryo which supplies blood to the aortic arches.
aortic septal defect
a congenital anomaly in which there is abnormal communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary artery just above the semilunar valves.
aortic sinus
the three pouch-like dilatations of the aortic bulb which carry the cusps of the aortic valve. The coronary arteries arise from the left caudal and the cranial sinuses.
aortic subvalvular stenosis
in dogs and pigs is possibly an inherited defect. Characterized by stenosis of the aorta just below the semilunar valves. In pigs, it causes congestive heart failure in the newborn, but in affected dogs severity increases with age so that clinical effects may not be apparent until the patients are older.
aortic thromboembolism
thrombosis is the usual forerunner of embolism, pieces of the thrombus breaking off the main mass and lodging in more distal parts of the vascular system. See also aortic embolism (above), verminous mesenteric arteritis, iliac artery thrombosis.
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Aortic thromboembolism in a cat. By permission from Nelson RW, Couto CG, Small Animal Internal Medicine, Mosby, 2003
aortic valve
the valve at the entrance to the aorta from the left ventricle made up of three semilunar leaflets or valvulae.
aortic valve rupture
rupture of the medial cusp is recorded as a cause of sudden death in horses usually as a sequel to endocarditis.
aortic valvular disease
stenosis is rarely an acquired disorder, but may be an inherited defect in several species. In cats and rarely dogs, restrictive cardiomyopathy may be a cause of subvalvular aortic obstruction. Valvular incompetence may be congenital or acquired and results in diastolic overloading of the left ventricle with a characteristic water-hammer pulse and diastolic murmur. See also aortic stenosis, aortic subvalvular stenosis (above).
aortic vestibule
the cranial part of the left ventricular cavity leading to the root of the aorta in the avian heart.

Patient discussion about aortic

Q. Why does Aortic stenosis causes an enlarged heart? My father was recently diagnosed as suffering from enlarged heart due to his Aortic stenosis. what is the connection between those to conditions? As far as I understand that aortic stenosis mean that the aortic valve is too small not too large...

A. there are several explanations for the enlargement of the heart that occurs due to Aortic stenosis. the most reasonable is that the mechanical power that the heart uses makes it bigger. it easy to see it here:
this is called Left Ventricular Hypertrophy or LVH in abbreviations.
this is a classic LVH E.C.G.

Q. How does alcohol affect someone who has been diagnosed with aortic valve stenosis? My brother has been diagnosed with aortic valve stenosis and also is a smoker and does drink alcohol on the weekends. He knows that he should stop smoking but what about the effects of alcohol? Does this also contribute to his stenosis?

A. Alcohol changes blood pressure and speed of the heart- that is not a good idea if you have an Aortic stenosis. Could probably makes things worst. I would avoid alcohol… but he should ask GP.

Q. Is there a good screening test for aortic abdominal aneurysm? A friend of mine was diagnosed with an aortic abdominal aneurysm. I am afraid i might have this condition too. is there any screening test that is good for me?

A. Today there are "mobile" testing centers that charge to use ultrasound technology to detect such things as AAA. I would highly recommend it only because it can act as a preventative measure. I am 50 years old and just suffered a ruptured AAA that very nearly killed me. I was the fortunate one. This very possibly could have detected it before it actually ruptured. You may want to check in your local areas for these mobile testing centers.

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