Most patients had antropyloric
strictures (n=22); in 6 patients, however, near-total or total gastric involvement was observed.
By using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, it has been found that ANF gene expression is localized in the rat gastric antrum in enterochromaffin cells (EC cells) in the lower portion of the antropyloric
glands (Gerbes et al, 1991; Gower et al., 2000, 2003).
In hypo motility at antropyloric
region, there is increased chance for reflex of duodenal contents into stomach which can cause chronic inflammation and ulceration.
area was detected on the head of the pancreas and choledochus.
According to some studies sparing of antropyloric
innervation results in near normal gastric emptying and with preservation of extragastric vagal innervations, the incidence of post vagotomy diarrhoea and dumping is minimal.
Park et al., "Effectiveness of self-expanding metal stents for malignant antropyloric
and duodenal obstruction with a comparison between covered and uncovered stents," Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol.
 Derangements in gastric motile activity include overall disturbed motility in the various stomach regions together with poorly synchronised and unco-ordinated motor function between the fundus and antropyloric
areas of the stomach.
Prolonged and severe gastric inflammation may cause epithelial damage, which may lead to gastric atrophy, characterized by loss of parietal and chief cells in the oxyntic mucosa and/or loss of glandular units in the oxyntic or antropyloric
In Pakistan a study carried out in Agha Khan University, Karachi showed tumour location in antropyloric
region in 53 % cases and in the proximal part of the stomach in 35 % cases, while in 12 % cases tumour was diffusely involving the stomach study carried out in Sri Lanka showed that 52.6 % of tumours were located in the proximal stomach involving the cardia, 30% involved the body and 17.5 % were in the distal stomach13.
All homozygous mutant mice developed antropyloric
adenoma, and 30% developed multifocal intraepithelial or intramucosal carcinomas.
The UGI is performed via an enteric tube with the tip positioned in the antropyloric
CECT abdomen and chest revealed circumferential wall thickening noted in antropyloric
region extending for a length of 6.6 cm with a wall thickness of 2 cm causing lumen narrowing.