manometry has been applied in PIPO to assess a patient's prognosis, response to treatment, and oral feeding tolerance (19).
The pathogenesis of delayed gastric emptying is associated with fundus abnormalities, antrum and antroduodenal
discoordination, pyloric dysfunction, and abnormal small bowel motility .
Bjornsson and Abrahamsson , measuring antroduodenal
pressures and gastric pH, concluded that nocturnal pH rises in the antrum are caused by duodenal retroperistalsis.
The effects of general anaesthesia on antroduodenal
motility, gastric pH and gastric emptying in man.
Abnormal esophageal motility related to the LES and antroduodenal motility has been observed in animal models (12) and in children with brain injury.
(50.) Miki K, Harada T, Kozaiwa K: Antroduodenal motor function and gastro-oesophageal reflux in neurologically impaired children, adolescents and young adults.
Real-time ultrasonographic assessment of antroduodenal
motility after ingestion of solid and liquid meals by patients with functional dyspepsia.
The result is a vicious cycle: Poor glucose control leads to antral dilation and hypomotility, gastric dysrhythmia, and lack of antroduodenal coordination.
Domperidone (Motilium), under review by the Food and Drug Administration for use in diabetic gastropathy, is a peripherally acting [dopamine.sub.2] antagonist that promotes antroduodenal coordination.
If it has not already been done, a test called an antroduodenal
manometry may be considered.
In contrast, the smooth muscle motilin receptor responses to higher doses and results in sustained antral contractions and improved antroduodenal
coordination, which effectively propels the gastric luminal contents distally towards the small and large intestines (4).
manometry is another avenue for assessing foregut motor function and can be employed in long-term (>24h) ambulatory tests  but is catheter-based (transnasal or transoral) and has demonstrated inconsistent performance in the larger antral lumen, and in many cases its results can be difficult to interpret.