Magendie's pupil, Claude Bernard, who succeeded him in the chair at the College de France, would be no less a provoker of anti-French sentiment on the part of the antivivisectionists
. Heir to the legacy of Magendie, Bernard subjected animals (he was particularly fond of frogology and of using the more accessible domestic species) to operations on the pancreas, the liver and other digestive organs, among other experiments.
'sentimental twaddle' with which antivivisectionists
The chasm that separates the antivivisectionists
and their opponents is most evident in the way Charles Bernard frames the abduction of Caro.
As Richard French observes: Both sides in the vivisection controversy found evolutionary doctrines of the relationship between man and animals a weapon of debate to be used gingerly: such doctrines could be adduced both in support of the validity of extrapolating experimental results obtained with animals to human beings and in support of arguments on behalf of animals as "our weaker brethren" or "our dumb fellow creatures," frequently put forth by antivivisectionists
There, he presented original investigations about the physical phenomena of life, experimenting on live animals despite opposition of anti-experimentalists and antivivisectionists
. This shocked observers but stimulated colleagues and attracted students, such as Claude Bernard.
As Victorian antivivisectionists
and many feminists have since recognized, the human/animal boundary has significant ethical implications for many humans, given the binaries of Western thought that have allied science with man, culture, mind, whiteness, objectivity, and agency, but relegated women and many others to a category of 'not quite' human if full humanity requires occupying this supposedly unmarked category.
pathologize the motivations of the antivivisectionists
who had brought a
Organized opposition to this practice came from the Antivivisectionists
who, in addition to arguing for stricter regulation, and in some cases discontinuation, of the practice, frequently disrupted experiments in medical schools by freeing animals from their cages.
Francis Wills, the fictitious narrator and the world's foremost authority on bird song, published a definitive study of nightingale song and then was disgraced by the outcry of antivivisectionists
Lederer shows that in the first half of the twentieth century "the moral issues raised by experimenting on human beings were most intently pursued by the men and women committed to the protection of laboratory animals, the American antivivisectionists
He opines, "The more extreme animal-rights activists are little more than the modern version of the old-time antivivisectionists
"--as if this were a stinging indictment.