Antiseptics


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

Antiseptics

 

Definition

An antiseptic is a substance which inhibits the growth and development of microorganisms. For practical purposes, antiseptics are routinely thought of as topical agents, for application to skin, mucous membranes, and inanimate objects, although a formal definition includes agents which are used internally, such as the urinary tract antiseptics.

Purpose

Antiseptics are a diverse class of drugs which are applied to skin surfaces or mucous membranes for their anti-infective effects. This may be either bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic. Their uses include cleansing of skin and wound surfaces after injury, preparation of skin surfaces prior to injections or surgical procedures, and routine disinfection of the oral cavity as part of a program of oral hygiene. Antiseptics are also used for disinfection of inanimate objects, including instruments and furniture surfaces.
Commonly used antiseptics for skin cleaning include benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, hexachlorophine, iodine compounds, mercury compounds, alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Other agents which have been used for this purpose, but have largely been supplanted by more effective or safer agents, include boric acid and volatile oils such as methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen.)
Chlorhexidine shows a high margin of safety when applied to mucous membranes, and has been used in oral rinses and preoperative total body washes.
Benzalkonium chloride and hexachlorophine are used primarily as hand scrubs or face washes. Benzalkonium may also find application is a disinfecting agent for instruments, and in low concentration as a preservative for drugs including ophthalmic solutions. Benzalkonium chloride is inactivated by organic compounds, including soap, and must not be applied to areas which have not been fully rinsed.
Iodine compounds include tincture of iodine and povidone iodine compounds. Iodine compounds have the broadest spectrum of all topical anti-infectives, with action against bacteria, fungi, viruses, spores, protozoa, and yeasts. Iodine tincture is highly effective, but its alcoholic component is drying and extremely irritating when applied to abraided (scraped or rubbed) skin. Povidone iodine, an organic compound, is less irritating and less toxic, but not as effective. Povidone iodine has been used for hand scrubs and disinfection of surgical sites. Aqueous solutions of iodine have also been used as antiseptic agents, but are less effective than alcoholic solutions and less convenient to use that the povidone iodine compounds.
Hydrogen peroxide acts through the liberation of oxygen gas. Although the antibacterial activity of hydrogen peroxide is relatively weak, the liberation of oxygen bubbles produces an effervescent action, which may be useful for wound cleansing through removal of tissue debris. The activity of hydrogen peroxide may be reduced by the presence of blood and pus. The appropriate concentration of hydrogen peroxide for antiseptic use is 3%, although higher concentrations are available.
Thimerosol (Mersol) is a mercury compound with activity against bacteria and yeasts. Prolonged use may result in mercury toxicity.

Recommended dosage

Dosage varies with product and intended use. Consult individualized references.

Precautions

Precautions vary with individual product and use. Consult individualized references.
Hypersensitivity reactions should be considered with organic compounds such as chlorhexidine, benzalkonium and hexachlorophine.
Skin dryness and irritation should be considered with all products, but particularly with those containing alcohol.
Systemic toxicity may result from ingestion of iodine containing compounds or mercury compounds.
Chlorhexidine should not be instilled into the ear. There is one anecdotal report of deafness following use of chlorhexidine in a patient with a perforated eardrum. Safety in pregnancy and breastfeeding have not been reported, however there is one anecdotal report of an infant developing slowed heartbeat apparently related to maternal use of chlorhexidine.
Iodine compounds should be used sparingly during pregnancy and lactation due to risk of infant absorption of iodine with alterations in thyroid function.

Interactions

Antiseptics are not known to interact with any other medicines. However, they should not be used together with any other topical cream, solution, or ointment.

Resources

Periodicals

Farley, Dixie. "Help for Cuts, Scrapes and Burns." FDA Consumer May 1996: 12.

Key terms

Antibiotic — A medicine used to treat infections.
Bacteria — Tiny, one-celled forms of life that cause many diseases and infections.
Mucous membrane — The moist lining of a body cavity or structure, such as the mouth or nose.
Residue — Traces that remain after most of the rest of the material is gone.
References in periodicals archive ?
This information and data will inform the agency's ongoing review of OTC antiseptic drug products.
The topical antiseptics and systemic antibiotics significantly reduce the risk of AO in third molar surgery.
In part 2, we address preoperative cleansing of the vagina with an antiseptic solution, preoperative bathing with an antiseptic solution, methods of placental extraction, closure of the deep subcutaneous layer of the abdomen, and closure of the skin.
The rising prevalence of infectious diseases is increasing the growth of the global antiseptics and disinfectants market.
-- Using chlorhexidine-alcohol preoperative skin antisepsis at the time of abdominal hysterectomy is associated with a lower incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs), compared with using povidone-iodine antiseptic solution, a large retrospective study showed.
Two new overmotding TPEs for medical-device housings boast enhanced resistance to commonly used antiseptic cleaners.
chlorhexidine gluconate instead of povidone-iodine for preoperative cutaneous antisepsis in our public-sector hospitals as very little data from Pakistan was available on the comparison of these two antiseptics for umbilical cord cleansing12 but no local reports could be found to establish the relation of these antiseptics with SSI rates in surgical patients.
Dubai: A new research conducted on Povidone Iodine, a broad-spectrum antiseptic shows it to be 99.9 per cent effective against the Ebola virus and this may be used widely by the more than five million Haj travellers planning their pilgrimage this year as a preventive step to combat the spread of the deadly virus.
An antiseptic solution is recommended for exit site care to reduce numbers of microorganisms and avoid ESIs.
Briefly describe the product: Aplicare Sterile Skin Antiseptic povidone-iodine products are available in sponge sticks, swabsticks, prep pads, and packets.
BEIRUT: Caretaker Agriculture Minister Hussein Hajj Hasan said Friday that his ministry was spending around LL4 billion ($2.66 million) a year to secure the necessary vaccinations, veterinary medications and antiseptics to keep Lebanon's livestock healthy.
Antiseptics are generally used in dilution for cleaning wounds and the most common are iodine, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine.