antisaccade

antisaccade

A saccade that is directed toward a stimulus.

antisaccade 

A voluntary eye movement made in the direction opposite to the side where a stimulus is presented. The subject is asked to fixate a small dot for some time. A stimulus is then presented to one side and the subject is asked to inhibit a reflex eye movement towards it but to make a saccade in the opposite direction. Analysis of the errors and/or latencies of the antisaccades indicate dysfunction in the frontal lobe, which controls the saccadic eye movements. See saccadic eye movement.
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Attention orienting and inhibitory control across the different mood states in bipolar disorder: an emotional antisaccade task.
Antisaccade performance is impaired in medically and psychiatrically healthy biological relatives of schizophrenia patients.
It was found that proactive interference affected low-span participants more than high-span (Kane & Engle, 2000), high-span participants were less vulnerable than low-span to salient distractors in a dichotic listening task (Conway, Cowan, & Bunting, 2001), high-span identified antisaccade targets faster than low-span in a antisaccade task (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001) and high-span were faster or less error prone than low-span in a Stroop task (Kane & Engle, 2003; Long & Prat, 2002).
Prefrontal cognitive processes: Working memory and inhibition in the antisaccade task.
Some studies have found fast ball game players have faster visually guided saccades and shorter latency of antisaccade task (Lenoir M, Crevits L, Goethals M, et al, 2000, Jafarzadehpur E, Aazami N, Bolouri B.
In their study, the participants with large WM capacity were not only faster in performing antisaccade tasks, but also less likely to make reflexive saccades to an exogenous cue on the wrong side of the screen.
This relation has been shown in different paradigms, such as paired-associated learning tasks (Rosen & Engle, 1998), antisaccade tasks (Kane, Conway, Bleckley & Engle, 2001), the "cocktail-party" phenomenon (Conway, Cowan, & Bunting, 2001), the STROOP task (Long & Prat, 2002) or interference paradigms (Kane & Engle, 2000; Soriano, Macizo & Bajo, 2004).
One such task that measures distraction and inhibitory processing is the antisaccade task.
An antisaccade set (25 trials), required the subject to look in the direction opposite the visual target, presented in randomized order.
The endophenotypes under investigation include attention, as measured by the continuous performance task; working and verbal memory; and neurophysiologic parameters such as prepulse inhibition of the startle response and antisaccade eye movement, an index of the ability to avoid distraction.