Attention orienting and inhibitory control across the different mood states in bipolar disorder: an emotional antisaccade
performance is impaired in medically and psychiatrically healthy biological relatives of schizophrenia patients.
It was found that proactive interference affected low-span participants more than high-span (Kane & Engle, 2000), high-span participants were less vulnerable than low-span to salient distractors in a dichotic listening task (Conway, Cowan, & Bunting, 2001), high-span identified antisaccade
targets faster than low-span in a antisaccade
task (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001) and high-span were faster or less error prone than low-span in a Stroop task (Kane & Engle, 2003; Long & Prat, 2002).
An appropriate distractor is the antisaccade
task [Hallet 1978].
Prefrontal cognitive processes: Working memory and inhibition in the antisaccade
Some studies have found fast ball game players have faster visually guided saccades and shorter latency of antisaccade
task (Lenoir M, Crevits L, Goethals M, et al, 2000, Jafarzadehpur E, Aazami N, Bolouri B.
task as a research tool in psychopathology: a critical review.
In their study, the participants with large WM capacity were not only faster in performing antisaccade
tasks, but also less likely to make reflexive saccades to an exogenous cue on the wrong side of the screen.
This relation has been shown in different paradigms, such as paired-associated learning tasks (Rosen & Engle, 1998), antisaccade
tasks (Kane, Conway, Bleckley & Engle, 2001), the "cocktail-party" phenomenon (Conway, Cowan, & Bunting, 2001), the STROOP task (Long & Prat, 2002) or interference paradigms (Kane & Engle, 2000; Soriano, Macizo & Bajo, 2004).
One such task that measures distraction and inhibitory processing is the antisaccade
set (25 trials), required the subject to look in the direction opposite the visual target, presented in randomized order.
The endophenotypes under investigation include attention, as measured by the continuous performance task; working and verbal memory; and neurophysiologic parameters such as prepulse inhibition of the startle response and antisaccade
eye movement, an index of the ability to avoid distraction.