antipsychotic agent


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
Related to antipsychotic agent: atypical antipsychotic agent

antipsychotic

 [an″te-, an″ti-si-kot´ik]
modifying psychotic behavior.
antipsychotic agent any drug that favorably modifies psychotic symptoms; categories include the phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines, dihydroindolones, and dibenzoxazepines. They are chemically diverse but pharmacologically similar. Formerly called major tranquilizer.

Antipsychotics stabilize mood and reduce anxiety, tension, and hyperactivity. They are also effective in helping to control agitation and aggressiveness. Delusions and hallucinations are often modified and may be eliminated by such an agent, but once the drug is discontinued, the delusions and hallucinations often return within a short while. Different antipsychotic agents bind to dopamine, histamine, muscarinic, cholinergic, α-adrenergic, and serotonin receptors. Blockade of dopaminergic transmission in various areas is thought to be responsible for the major antipsychotic, antiemetic effects of these agents as well as neurologic side effects. The drugs are contraindicated in patients suffering from central nervous system depression, severe allergy, Parkinson's disease, or a blood dyscrasia. There also is the possibility of drug-drug interaction when neuroleptic drugs are given concurrently with barbiturates, alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, antihypertensives, meperidine, anticonvulsants, or levodopa.

Many antipsychotics have alarming side effects (see extrapyramidal effects); thus there must be thorough patient education and individualized adjustments in dosage. The side effects can usually be minimized by gradually increasing the dosage until the optimum for the individual is reached. Side effects such as a discomforting restlessness and agitation (akathisia), involuntary rhythmic movements of the trunk and limbs, parkinsonism, and tardive dyskinesia are often misinterpreted as symptoms of some unrelated disorder; these are often the reason for noncompliance or stopping of medication by patients. Approximately 20 per cent of the patients treated with neuroleptics for long periods develop tardive dyskinesia, a syndrome of choreoathetoid movements of the tongue, mouth, face, neck, limbs, and trunk, which may continue after the drug is stopped.

Antipsychotic agents are sometimes prescribed for conditions other than mental disorders. They can be beneficial in the control of nausea, in the treatment of intractable hiccups, in controlling the movement disorders associated with Huntington's chorea and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, and, in combination with other drugs, for the control of pain.

an·ti·psy·chot·ic a·gent

a functional category of neuroleptic drugs that are helpful in the treatment of psychosis and have a capacity to ameliorate thought disorders.

antipsychotic

adjective Referring to an antipsychotic drug.

noun Any drug that attenuates psychotic episodes.
 
Agents
Phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, dibenzoxazepines, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines.
 
Main types of antipsychotics
Typical and atypical, which differ in their side/adverse effects.
 
Indications
Management of schizophrenic, paranoid, schizo-affective and other psychotic disorders; acute delirium, dementia, manic episodes (during induction of lithium therapy), control of movement disorders (in Huntington’s disease), Tourette syndrome, ballismus, intractable hiccups, severe nausea and vomiting (by blocking the medulla’s chemoreceptor trigger zone).
 
Adverse effects
Extrapyramidal effects (dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism), tardive dyskinesia due to blocking of basal ganglia; sedation and autonomic side effects (orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, nasal congestion and constipation) are due to blocking of histaminic, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors.

antipsychotic agent

Major tranquilizer, neuroleptic Neuropharmacology Any drug that attenuates psychotic episodes Agents Phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, dibenzoxazepines, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines Indications Management of schizophrenic, paranoid, schizoaffective and other psychotic disorders, acute delirium, dementia, manic episodes–during induction of lithium therapy, control of movement disorders—in Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, ballismus, intractable hiccups, severe nausea and vomiting by blocking the medulla's chemoreceptor trigger zone Adverse effects Extrapyramidal effects–dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia due to blocking of basal ganglia; sedation and autonomic side effects–orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, nasal congestion and constipation are due to blocking of histamic, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors

an·ti·psy·chot·ic a·gent

(an'tē-sī-kot'ik ā'jĕnt)
A functional category of neuroleptic drugs that are helpful in the treatment of psychosis and have a capacity to decrease symptoms of thought disorders (e.g., chlorpromazine, haloperidol); generally classified as typical or atypical.
Synonym(s): antipsychotic (1) .

an·ti·psy·chot·ic a·gent

(an'tē-sī-kot'ik ā'jĕnt)
Category of neuroleptic drugs that are helpful in the treatment of psychosis and have a capacity to ameliorate thought disorders.
Synonym(s): antipsychotic (1) .
References in periodicals archive ?
Conventional antipsychotic agents and some, but not all, of the marketed novel agents, elevate serum prolactin levels via inhibition of dopamine action at [D.sub.2] receptors in the tuberoinfundibular system of hypothalamus, where prolactin secretion is regulated.
Our antipsychotic agent ABILIFY has provided us with an opportunity to work closely with Bristol-Myers Squibb, and we are pleased to enhance this partnership and take on responsibility for the development and commercialization of saxagliptin in Japan.
One way to classify antipsychotic agents is by the dosage of medication, or the potency (strength) in milligrams, that is typically recommended.
Lurasidone hydrochloride is an atypical antipsychotic agent that is believed to have an affinity for dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT2A and serotonin 5-HT7 receptors where it has antagonist effects.
Management of metabolic adverse effects involves switching the antiretroviral agent and/or antipsychotic agent to an alternative associated with lower metabolic risk.
Compared with periods of nonuse of any antipsychotic agent, the adjusted risk of mortality was reduced by 85% while patients were on a second-generation LAI, by 47% when on second-generation oral agents, by 36% with first-generation LAIs, and by 34% for first-generation oral antipsychotics.
According to the company, Fanapt is an atypical antipsychotic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults.
The introduction of dibenzodiazepine antipsychotic agent, clozapine, is an important development in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia.
(18,19) Following them is critical, as both the initiation of an antipsychotic agent and any change in regimen can lead to the development--or exacerbation--of a number of diseases.
Data source: A review of 19 studies assessing the efficacy of combining a mood stabilizer and an antipsychotic agent as maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.
From experiments with cell cultures, they found that both quinacrine (a malaria drug) and chlorpromazine (Thorazine, an antipsychotic agent) showed substantial anti-prion properties at concentrations that were safe in humans.
For example, while a brief, low-dose course of an antipsychotic agent may help to manage symptoms of non-cognitive origin (delusions, hallucinations), in residents with cognitive impairments, such as dementia, the very same drugs can worsen symptoms.