In the presence of antiplasmins
, such as alpha-2 macro globuli, in the plasma, the anti-fibrinolytic action of TXA is poetntiated.
Caption: Figure 1: Activated factor XIII (FXIIIa) partially prevents [alpha]2- antiplasmin
([alpha]2AP) from being expelled from a plasma clot during compaction and thereby strongly inhibits fibrinolysis.
The production of plasminogen, alpha-2 antiplasmin
, histidine-rich glycoprotein and FXIII is decreased in liver diseases.
Plasmin (a fibrinolytic enzyme that breaks down blood clots) is rapidly blocked by a protein called antiplasmin
. ECE compounds are natural potent inhibitors of antiplasmin
, capable of efficient promotion of plasmin.
Measurements included complete blood count (CBC); platelets; PT; activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT); fibrinogen (clottable, immunological); coagulation factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII; anti-thrombin (AT); alpha-2 antiplasmin
(AP); Protein C (PC); mixing studies; lupus anticoagulant screening; plasminogen; thrombin-anti-thrombin; fibrin degradation products (FDP); d-dimer; and thrombin time.
Inhibitory proteins, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and antiplasmin
, help regulate the rate of fibrinolysis (Diethorn & Weld, 1989; Comp, 1990).
The methods used were as follows: fibrinogen was measured by the Clauss method  protein S activity was measured using the IL Test[TM], an assay based on the prolongation of prothrombin time; protein C activity, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), antithrombin III (AT III), plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) and antiplasmin
were measured photometrically using chromogenic techniques (Chromogenix[TM] kits).
Collen, "On the kinetics of the reaction between human antiplasmin
and a low-molecular-weight form of plasmin," European Journal of Biochemistry, vol.
Horvath, "Contribution of conserved lysine residues in the [alpha]2- antiplasmin
C terminus to plasmin binding and inhibition," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Mesalazine therapy is recommended according to one paper  and antiplasmin
tranexamic acid according to another .
Coagulation factors II, V, IX, X, XI, and XII, plasminogen, and alpha-2 antiplasmin
and risk of coronary heart disease.
Uromodulin, SERPINF1 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade F, [alpha]-2 antiplasmin
, pigment epithelium derived factor, member 1), and CD44 were verified in an independent cohort and shown to differentiate patients with AR from other groups.