, as the 1st choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), have various side effects.
The treatments currently in use as prime therapy for leishmaniasis include meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), in addition to pentavalent antimonials
sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam), but they are harmful to some extent, require prolong parenteral administration courses and have powerful side effects .
It is safe, cost effective and easily administered treatment option in patients, especially in those having comorbidities like old age, renal, hepatic and cardiac diseases limiting the use of systemic antimonials
Treatment of leishmaniasis is based on pentavalent antimonials
, drugs developed more than 50 years ago that are toxic and prone to drug resistance.
Amphotericin B and miltefosine are expensive drugs and cause complications, and disease resistance to pentavalent antimonials
is now widespread in India [11-14].
The exclusion criteria included age less than 12, pregnancy and breastfeeding, known allergies or side effects to systemic antimonials
and already substantially regressed lesions.
The pentavalent antimonials
remain the first-line drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis regardless their high toxicity, resistance emergency and treatment failure (Sundar, 2001; WHO, 2010).
Local infiltration with antimonials
(sodium stibogluconate [SSG]100 mg/mL 0.
Pati-ents treated with antimonials
in high doses reported fatty degeneration of kidneys17 whereas no such cha-nge was observed in the present study.
Besides oral and parenteral medications (pentavalent antimonials
, liposomal amphotericin B, miltefosine, and some others), local cryotherapy, intralesional infiltration of sodium stibogluconate, local heat therapy, and various topical paromomycin preparations are in practice for many many years.
Treatment with prevalent antimonials
is not only expensive, it is painful too.
Chemotherapy of this disease has relied mainly on pentavalent antimonials
, amphotericin B (AMB), and pentamidine (3).