antimetabolite


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Related to antimetabolite: methotrexate

antimetabolite

 [an″te-, an″ti-mĕ-tab´o-līt]
1. a substance bearing a close structural resemblance to one required for normal physiological functioning, and exerting its effect by interfering with the utilization of the essential metabolite.
2. a class of antineoplastic agents consisting of antimetabolites of substances required for cell growth and replication; the interference with cell function is phase specific, largely in the S phase of the cell cycle. The group includes cladribine, cytarabine, floxuridine, fludarabine, fluorouracil, mercaptopurine, methotrexate, and thioguanine. See also antineoplastic therapy.

an·ti·me·tab·o·lite

(an'tē-me-tab'ō-līt),
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; for example, ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

antimetabolite

(ăn′tē-mĭ-tăb′ə-līt′, ăn′tī-)
n.
A substance that closely resembles an essential metabolite and therefore inhibits physiological reactions involving that metabolite.

an′ti·met′a·bol′ic (-mĕt′ə-bŏl′ĭk) adj.

antimetabolite

Antimetabolic agent Pharmacology Any agent–eg, MTX, 6-mercaptopurine, thioguanine, 5-FU, gemcitabine that is a structural analogue of a native cell metabolite, which either inhibits the enzymes of a particular metabolic pathway or is incorporated during synthesis to produce defective product or prevents replication; anti-metabolites are used as chemotherapeutics, antivirals and as immunosuppressants, and include analogues of purines–eg azathioprine, pyrimidines, folic acid–eg aminopterin, MTX See Azathioprine, Methotrexate.

an·ti·me·tab·o·lite

(an'tē-mĕ-tab'ō-līt)
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; e.g., ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

antimetabolite

An anticancer, or CYTOTOXIC, drug which acts by combining with essential enzymes within cancer cells so as to interfere with their metabolism and growth. To be useful, antimetabolites must be significantly more toxic to cancer cells than to normal cells.

Antimetabolite

A drug that interferes with a cell's growth or ability to multiply.
Mentioned in: Chemotherapy
References in periodicals archive ?
Besides corticosteroids, long-term treatment options for the treatment of JIA-associated uveitis include antimetabolites, alkylating agents and biologic agents.
Arginine antimetabolite L-canavanine induces apoptotic cell death in human Jurkat T cells via caspase-3 activation regulated by Bcl-2 or Bd-xL.
Bioisosteric replacement of carbonyl oxygen in guanine (pyridine-imidazole ring system), a nitrogenous base by S gives 6-thioguanine (potent anti-cancer antimetabolite).
The ability of CD to convert nontoxic 5FC into toxic 5FU antimetabolite and its absence in mammalian cells has been exploited in enzyme-prodrug gene therapy and shown to control tumour growth (Hamaji et al., 2007).
Currently, antimetabolite drugs such as gemcitabine (GEM) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU) are approved for the treatment of pancreatic cancer; however, upon treatment tumor cells develop resistance against these agents rendering them ineffective (Shore et al.
Topical 5-FU is an antineoplastic antimetabolite that is applied twice daily to the lesion.
One-quarter had received antimetabolite therapy in the past.
Methotrexate is an antimetabolite that penetrates the blood brain barrier when given in high doses intravenously.
Prospective, randomized, controlled trials are currently underway to formulate evidence-based algorithms for the initiation of antimetabolite therapy in IBD.
It compared the continuation of cyclophosphamide after disease remission to "step-down" to an antimetabolite with fewer side effects, azathioprine.