Figure 1: Number of drugs added in the 19th essential medicine lists Addition of drugs in 19th EML 19th EML 18th EML Vaccines 23 21 Implantable/Intravaginal contraceptives 3 1 Intrauterine devices 2 1 Disinfectants 4 3 Medicines affecting coagulation 10 8 Hormones and antihormones
8 5 Cytotoxic and adjuvant medicines 38 25 Antiretroviral FDCs 6 5 Antituberculosis medicines 23 19 Anticonvulsants/Antiepileptics 10 8 Note: Table made from bar graph.
Cells will be cultured and treated with varying concentrations of BPA and BPA in combination with hormones and antihormones
, and Western blot analyses will be performed to determine BPA's effects on ER[alpha] and p53 protein expression.
Ulrich, "Endometrial cancer, types, prognosis, female hormones and antihormones
," Climacteric, vol.
Although many estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers initially respond to antihormones
drugs, responses are commonly incomplete when resistance ultimately emerging.
However, most tumours that initially respond to antihormones retain expression of the ER when they become refractory to such treatments , with loss of ER expression in tumours that have relapsed on tamoxifen being reported in less than one-quarter of cases [9-11].
For example, the acquisition of resistance to the antihormones tamoxifen and fulvestrant in ER-positive breast cancer cells is accompanied by the enhanced expression of the EGFR and HER2, as well as ligands for these receptors [12,18,28,29] whilst increased expression and activity of EGFR and HER2 and enhanced MAPK is reported in sequential samples obtained from tamoxifen-treated ER-positive primary breast cancers .
Hormetic effects of hormones, antihormones
, and antidepressants on cancer cell growth in culture: in vivo correlates.
Specificity for steroids and antihormones
. J Biol Chem 1992;267:968-74.
Another approach has been to counteract those hormones presumed or known to be involved in the establishment of pregnancy--including estrogens, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and progesterone--through the administration of antihormones
These "antihormones" may play a role in the timing of puberty, as well as in changes in sex-organ function during aging.
By binding to gonadal cells, these antagonistic antihormones block activity by well-known forms of FSH, thereby disrupting normal hormone secretion.
Environmental xenobiotics and the antihormones
cyproterone acetate and spironolactone use the nuclear hormone pregnenolone X receptor to activate the CYP3A23 hormone response element, Mol Pharmacol 54:1113-1117.