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Four serum antibody assays may serve as a first-step diagnostic tool to identify biopsy candidates: immunoglobulin A tissue transglutaminase (IgA tTG), IgA endomysial antibody (IgA EMA), IgA antigliadin antibody (IgA AGA), and IgG antigliadin antibody (IgG AGA).
This leads to the antigliadin antibody combining with those proteins, causing production of even more cytokines.
(11) The anti-tTG and antiendomysial assays are considered equally useful as a single test, whereas the antigliadin antibody assays have been considered the least accurate.