Periapical lesion tissues are infiltrated by different inflammatory cells, including antigen-presenting cells
such as DCs and macrophages, which play an important role in the activation and function of T cells.
Riddell, "Artificial antigen-presenting cells
for use in adoptive immunotherapy," The Cancer Journal, vol.
(48),(56) M cells exhibit a unique intrapocket structure at their basal membranes and house antigen-presenting cells
(e.g., dendritic cells and macrophages) or lymphocytes (Fig.
(1997) reported that LPS not only causes polyclonal activation of B cells and stimulation of antigen-presenting cells
but also stimulates both [CD4.sup.+] and [CD8.sup.+] T cells under in vivo conditions.
Chakraborty, a chemical engineer and biochemist by training, became interested in immunology after hearing about a paper on the immunological synapse, a crucial communications point for T cells and antigen-presenting cells
. Studies had shown that when the two cells meet, various receptors and molecules bind across the synapse, organizing into a doughnut-shaped pattern.
A cell that is in distress sends out danger signals and form danger zone around itself, then antigens in the neighborhood are captured by Antigen-presenting cells
and they travel to the local lymph node and present the antigens to the lymphocytes.
PDS Biotechnology's Versamune(TM) nanotechnology facilitates the uptake of disease-associated protein and peptide antigens by the antigen-presenting cells
of the immune system.
Treatment with autologous antigen-presenting cells
activated with the HER-2 based antigen Lapuleucel-T: results of a phase I study in immunologic and clinical activity in HER-2 overexpressing breast cancer
Also an activation of antigen-presenting cells
, NK-cells and T-cells is obvious, and a release of different cytokines may be responsible for the various beneficial clinical effects but also the--although rarely observed--adverse reactions during this kind of therapy.
Microbes that pass through the stratum corneum and enter the skin are attacked by defensive cells that reside there, known as antigen-presenting cells
. Langerhans cells are the chief antigen-presenting cells
in the skin.
The immunotherapeutics start with precursors of the patient's dendritic cells which, when matured for the product, are currently considered the most effective antigen-presenting cells
within the immune system.
The influenza vaccine patch uses Iomai's proprietary transcutaneous immunization technology, which delivers vaccine to a group of antigen-presenting cells
in the skin called Langerhans cells.