anticholinergic


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Related to anticholinergic: acetylcholine, anticholinergic toxidrome

anticholinergic

 [an″te-, an″ti-ko″lin-er´jik]
1. blocking the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves.
2. an agent that has this effect; called also parasympatholytic.

an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic

(an'tē-kol-i-ner'jik),
Antagonistic to the action of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers (for example, atropine).

anticholinergic

/an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic/ (-ko″lin-er´jik) parasympatholytic; blocking the passage of impulses through the parasympathetic nerves; also, an agent that so acts.

anticholinergic

(ăn′tē-kō′lə-nûr′jĭk, ăn′tī-)
adj.
Inhibiting or blocking the physiological action of acetylcholine at a receptor site: anticholinergic drugs.

an′ti·cho′li·ner′gic n.

anticholinergic

[-kō′lənur′jik]
Etymology: Gk, anti + chole, bile, ergein, to work
1 pertaining to a blockade of acetylcholine receptors that results in the inhibition of the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses.
2 an anti-cholinergic agent that functions by competing with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine for its receptor sites at synaptic junctions. Anticholinergics are used to treat spastic disorders of the GI tract, to reduce salivary and bronchial secretions before surgery, or to dilate the pupil. Some anticholinergics reduce parkinsonian symptoms but are never considered primary agents for therapy. Atropine in large doses stimulates the central nervous system and in small doses acts as a depressant. Among numerous cholinergic blocking agents are atropine, belladonna, glycopyrrolate, hyoscyamine, methixene hydrochloride, trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride, and scopolamine. Also called cholinergic-blocking agent, parasympatholytic. See also antiadrenergic.

anticholinergic

adjective Referring to an agent or effect that suppresses or inhibits acetylcholine activity.
 
noun Any agent that inhibits parasympathetic activity by blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine; anticholinergics are used for asthma, COPD, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, Parkinson’s disease and to decrease smooth muscle spasms (e.g., in the urinary bladder); anticholinergics may be antimuscarinic, ganglionic blockers and neuromuscular blockers.

anticholinergic

Parasympatholytic adjective Referring to an agent or effect that suppresses or inhibits acetylcholine activity noun Any agent that inhibits parasympathetic activity by blocking the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine; anticholinergics are used for asthma, COPD, diarrhea, N&V, Parkinson's disease, and to ↓ smooth muscle spasms–eg, in the urinary bladder; anticholinergics may be antimuscarinic, ganglionic blockers, and neuromuscular blockers

an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic

(an'tē-kō'li-nĕr'jik)
1. Antagonistic to the action of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers (e.g., atropine).
2. Any of a class of compounds exerting anticholinergic effects. Some of these compounds (e.g., atropine) are used medicinally.

anticholinergic

Antagonistic to the action of acetyl choline or to the parasympathetic or other CHOLINERGIC nerve supply. Acetyl choline stimulates muscle contraction in the intestines and elsewhere and slows the heart. Anticholinergic substances, such as ATROPINE, relieve muscle spasm, dilate the pupils and speed up the heart.

Anticholinergic

Blocking the action of the neurohormone acetylcholine. The most obvious effects include dry mouth and dry eyes.

acetylcholine (ACh) 

A neurotransmitter substance with special excitatory properties of all preganglionic autonomic neurons, all parasympathetic postganglionic neurons and a few postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Acetylcholine is synthesized and liberated by the action of the enzyme choline acetyltranferase from the compounds choline and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) which occurs in all cholinergic neurons. ACh exists only momentarily after its formation, being hydrolysed by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which is present in the neurons of cholinergic nerves throughout their entire lengths and at neuromuscular junctions: this process is essential for proper muscle function as otherwise the accumulation of ACh would result in continuous stimulation of the muscles, glands and central nervous system. Alternatively a shortage of ACh has devastating effect (e.g. myasthenia gravis). ACh binds to acetylcholine receptors on skeletal muscle fibres. Sodium enters the muscle fibre membrane, which leads to a depolarization of the membrane and muscle contraction. There are two main types of acetylcholine receptors (cholinergic receptors): muscarinic receptors, which are stimulated by muscarine and ACh, belong to a family of G proteins coupled receptors and are situated in parasympathetically innervated structures (e.g. the iris and ciliary body); and nicotine receptors, which are stimulated by nicotine and ACh, are ligand-gated receptors and are situated in striated muscles (e.g. the extraocular muscles). Cholinergic receptors are found in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, in the brain and spinal cord. The action of ACh can be either blocked or stimulated by drugs: Anticholinesterase drugs (e.g. neostigmine) inhibit acetylcholinesterase and prolong the action of acetylcholine whereas antimuscarinic drugs (also referred to as anticholinergics or parasympatholytics) such as atropine, cyclopentolate, homatropine, hyoscine and tropicamide inhibit the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Other drugs mimic the action of ACh, they are known as parasympathomimetics (e.g. pilocarpine). See cholinergic; cycloplegia; miotics; mydriatic; neurotransmitter; nicotine; synapse; autonomic nervous system.

an·ti·cho·lin·er·gic

(an'tē-kō'li-nĕr'jik)
Antagonistic to the action of parasympathetic or other cholinergic nerve fibers (e.g., atropine).

anticholinergic (an´tīkō´linur´jik),

n (parasympatholytic, cholinolytic), a drug that acts to inhibit the effects of the neurohormone acetylcholine or to inhibit its cholinergic neuroeffects. A cholinergic blocking agent.

anticholinergic

blockade of acetylcholine receptors, resulting in the inhibition of the transmission of parasympathetic nerve impulses; parasympatholytic. Used most commonly in the nonspecific treatment of vomiting or diarrhea; includes atropine, propantheline, scopolamine, isopropamide.
References in periodicals archive ?
Non-degenerative mild cognitive impairment in elderly people and use of anticholinergic drugs: longitudinal cohort study.
However, it is noted that the use of a short-term [beta]2 agonist and an anticholinergic, such as ipratropium, improves the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in patients with COPD.
It should state that if anticholinergic effects appear, stopping the drug should be considered.
In the present study, we tested the effects of the anticholinergic drug, oxitropium bromide (OTB), on lung function, exercise capacity, and exertional dyspnoea in elderly COPD patients (more than 75 years old) using a double-blind placebo-controlled study, in comparison with middle-aged patients (less than 65 years of age).
Ipratropium is an anticholinergic drug administered by inhalation for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases.
Prof Shelly Gray, leader of the project at the University of Washington School of Pharmacy, said: "Older adults should be aware that many medications - including some available without a prescription, such as over-the-counter sleep aids - have strong anticholinergic effects.
GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE/NYSE: GSK), a British multinational pharmaceutical, biologics, vaccines and consumer healthcare company, has announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Incruse Ellipta (umeclidinium) as an anticholinergic indicated for the long-term, once-daily, maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, it was reported yesterday.
Overdose produces a classic anticholinergic syndrome that can lead to severe and sometimes fatal complications.
Each trial directly compares the use of anticholinergic medications to an alternate treatment modality.
Of particular note are the anticholinergic drugs, which interfere with the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, a chemical essential for the relaying of signals between brain cells to promote memory, attention, and many other brain functions.
1] The current trend in the algorithm of treating OAB is using oral anticholinergic drugs.