Kreisel added, "Future research needs to show whether these findings will translate into human lung transplant recipients, and possibly to other organ transplant patients who develop antibody-mediated rejection
We noticed that patients without antibody-mediated rejection
had better graft function, at one year, than those with ABMR, although one-year graft survival was similar.
Cote et al., "2013 Banff Criteria for Chronic Active Antibody-Mediated Rejection
: Assessment in a Real-Life Setting," American Journal of Transplantation, vol.
Dean, "Terminal complement inhibition decreases antibody-mediated rejection
in sensitized renal transplant recipients," American Journal of Transplantation, vol.
C4d, a complement product of classical pathway (12) (triggered by anti-donor antibody) is used as a durable marker for predicting antibody-mediated rejection
. (15,16) Immunostaining for C4d and CD34 was done by Labelled Streptavidin Biotin immunoperoxidase technique (LSAB) using monoclonal antibody to C4d and CD34 on serial step sections (Figure 3 and 4).
Itami et al., "Microvascular inflammation in early protocol biopsies of renal allografts in cases of chronic active antibody-mediated rejection
," Nephrology, vol.
A second kidney biopsy showed pathognomonic features of thrombotic microangiopathy (including a preglomerular arteriole of one glomerulus obstructed by a fresh thrombus and mesangiolysis, without argument for antibody-mediated rejection
) (Figure 2).
In 2013, a face VCA was performed in a highly sensitized patient who had sustained chemical burns; an induction regimen consisting of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG), bidiurnal total plasma exchange, and IVIG was administered, and the management of a complex antibody-mediated rejection
(AMR) episode has been recently described .
Patients were divided into three cohort groups: those who experienced no episodes of rejection, those with acute cellular rejection, and those with a combined acute cellular and acute antibody-mediated rejection
. The rate of acute antibody-mediated rejection
was found to be 14%, higher than that of the general kidney transplant population, which was reported to be approximately 7% (Takemoto et al., 2004).
The two recognized forms of allograft rejection are acute cellular rejection and antibody-mediated rejection
Although antibody-mediated rejection
may have also contributed to the rapid graft loss, neither donor-specific antibody testing nor histopathologic stains were available during the time of this study to confirm this speculation.