antibiotic drugs


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antibiotic drugs

A very extensive range of drugs able to kill or prevent reproduction of bacteria in the body without killing the patient. Antibiotics were originally derived from cultures of living organisms, such as fungi or bacteria, but, today, many are chemically synthesized. The antibiotics have enormously extended the scope and effectiveness of medical therapy against bacterial infection, but have not succeeded in eliminating any bacterial diseases. The extensive, and not always judicious, use of antibiotics has led to widespread evolutionary changes in bacteria in response to their new environment, manifested by the acquisition, by natural selection, of resistance to these drugs. This forces researchers to produce ever new and more effective antibiotics. The antibiotics include such classes as the aminoglycosides, amphenicols, ansamycins, lincosamides, macrolides, polypeptides, tetracyclines and beta-lactams. The beta-lactams include groups such as carbapenems, cephalosporins, cephamycins, monobactams, oxacephems and penicillins.

antibiotic

1. destructive of life.
2. a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in dilute solutions, to kill (biocidal activity) or inhibit the growth (biostatic activity) of other microorganisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. See also antimicrobial.
3. used as feed additives to animals as growth promotants.

anthracycline a's
a group of antibiotics which have a tetracycline ring structure substituted with the sugar daunosamine. Includes the antineoplastic drugs doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
antineoplastic antibiotic
bactericidal antibiotic
one that kills bacteria.
bacteriostatic antibiotic
one that suppresses the growth of bacteria.
broad-spectrum antibiotic
one that is effective against a wide range of bacteria.
antibiotic detection
on-farm and prepackaged laboratory tests available for testing farm products and animal tissues and fluids for antibiotic residues.
antibiotic drugs
the range includes the following groups: penicillin, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, macrolide, nitrofuran, cephalosporins, and a miscellaneous group including bacitracin, tyrothricin, polymyxin, colistin.
antibiotic feed additives
see feed additives.
first generation antibiotic
one produced as a natural product, e.g. penicillin G. See second generation antibiotic (below).
antibiotic food preservation
is a satisfactory technique but very strictly controlled because of the problem of residues in the food. Used mostly for the preservation of fish.
antibiotic-induced diarrhea
see pseudomembranous colitis, acute undifferentiated diarrhea of the horse.
antibiotic residue in food
in human food of animal origin is a seriously regarded pollution in public health surveillance. The residues may arise from systemic administration, or even after absorption from a local site such as the uterus, but the most serious contamination arises from milk from quarters that have been treated for mastitis. It is essential for the safety of the human population, the financial well-being of the farmer and the professional reputation of the veterinarian that antibacterial withdrawal times are observed.
antibiotic resistance
see antimicrobial resistance.
second generation antibiotic
produced by manipulation of the molecular structure of a first generation antibiotic (see above) so that the metabolism and pharmacodynamics of the original compound are significantly altered.
antibiotic sensitivity test
see antimicrobial sensitivity test.
antibiotic therapy
antibiotics vary in their absorption from the alimentary tract, requiring some, e.g. streptomycin, to be given parenterally for systemic effect, freedom from toxicity, the range of bacteria against which they are effective, their capacity to stimulate resistance and whether they are bacteriostatic or bactericidal in their effects. Selection of the most suitable antibiotic to suit a particular circumstance may be guided by an antimicrobial sensitivity test, knowledge of the infection present and the price of the drug. In many instances, because of lack of knowledge of the infection present it is necessary to choose an agent with a broad antibacterial spectrum.
antibiotic withdrawal, antibiotic withholding
see antibacterial withdrawal time.
References in periodicals archive ?
But this bodes badly for infected people--particularly if the newly acquired bacterial trait is an immunity to antibiotic drugs.
Overuse of antibiotics over the last few decades has created some strains of bacteria that can shrug off the most powerful antibiotic drugs.
Editor's note: In our last issue, we explored the consequences of what happens when doctors overprescribe antibiotic drugs.
As the use of antibiotic drugs increases, the bacteria they are designed to fight eventually develop a resistance to the drugs.
We believe the activity of PMX-30063 against a broad range of many types of Staph bacteria, including those non-responsive to currently marketed drugs such as vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid, distinguishes it among available and investigational antibiotic drugs.
Tenders are invited for Procurement of antibiotic drugs for ccl hospitals.
Highlights of the act include establishing a new limited population antibacterial drug approval pathway for antibiotics and including safeguards to guide the appropriate use of antibiotic drugs, "thereby optimizing patient care and limiting the development of resistance.
diff), that have developed resistance to many different types of antibiotic drugs.
YOUR recent article "Too many antibiotic drugs being prescribed by doctors" leaves much to be desired.
By ISLAMABAD, May 21, 2011 (Balochistan Times): The health authorities have been urged to take drastic measures to check abuse of antibiotic drugs in the country.
The team led by Professor Timor Baasov of the Technion Faculty of Chemistry have modified existing aminoglycoside antibiotic drugs, and carefully monitored biological and toxicity tests of the resulting derivatives.
Antibiotic drugs are used to treat it and recovery can take several weeks.