anti-thrombin III

anti-thrombin III

A 58-kD alpha2-glycoprotein with a single polypeptide chain that inactivates serine proteases (thrombin and other coagulation proteins, including factor Xa, IXa, kallikrein and others) by an irreversible heparin-dependent reaction.
 
Function
AT-III dissolves blood clots that normally form within the circulation; heparin’s anticoagulant activity hinges on activation of AT-III. Decreased AT-III may be a congenital AD condition or acquired, occurring in DIC (due to pulmonary tuberculosis) or in liver disease (due to decreased AT-III production), resulting in an increased risk of coagulation.
 
Ref range
0.15–0.45 mg/mL, or > 50% of lab’s control value.
 
Increased in
Acute hepatitis, post-renal transplant, inflammation, menstruation, vitamin K deficiency.

Decreased in
Congenital deficiency, liver transplant, DIC, nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis, chonic liver disease, carcinoma, mid-menstrual cycle; AT-III is defective in 0.14% to 0.5% of the general population.
References in periodicals archive ?
Further laboratory work-up for autoimmune and coagulation disorders, such as anti-phospholipid syndrome, protein-S, protein-C and anti-thrombin III deficiency was negative.
Thrombophilia screening including protein C, protein S, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibody, anti-[beta] glycoprotein-I antibody, and anti-thrombin III were all normal.
Antinuclear antibodies were negative and protein C, protein S, anti-thrombin III and antiphospholipid antibodies profile which were carried out 4 weeks afterwards were within normal limits, hence ruling out any coagulopathy.
At one side estrogen is found to be thrombogenic by cohorts of the patients using contraceptive pills or receiving hormonal replacement therapy1,2 which is also supported by the fact that a number of pathways are altered by estrogen that effect the cardiovascular system14,15 and many changes in factors influencing coagulation have been reported including increased circulating levels of factors II, VII, IX and X and decreased anti-thrombin III pathway due to hepatic effects16.
Fibrinogen degradation products tend to be raised and concentrations of proteins C, S, and anti-thrombin III reduced (9).
Coagulation studies showed that the prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time, factor VIII, fibrinogen, D-dimer, anti-thrombin III, protein C, and S levels were normal.
Anticoagulants Anti-thrombin III Agonists: Heparin, Low Molecular Weight Heparin, ATIII Inhibitors of Factor IIa (Thrombin) Inhibitors of Factor Xa Dual Inhibitors of Factor IIa and Xa Inhibitors of Factor IXa Inhbitors of Factor VII/Tissue Factor Inhibitors of Factor VIII Antiplatelet Agents Inhibitors of Platelet ADP Receptor Inhibitors of PAR-1 / Thrombin Receptor Antagonists of GPIIb/IIIa Antagonists of GPIb & von Willebrand Factor Antagonists of GPVI Antithrombotics
One study, led by Ursula Haussmann of the Division of Immunology/ Hematology/BMT, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland; Growth and Development Centre, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland, entitled, "Hepatic veno-occlusive disease in pediatric stem cell transplantation: impact of pre-emptive anti-thrombin III replacement and combined anti-thrombin III/Defibrotide therapy," was published in the peer-reviewed journal, "Haematologica/The Hematology Journal 2006.
The binding of anti-thrombin III to these agents is required for the inhibition of coagulation enzymes such as Factor IIa and Factor Xa.