The search strategy consisted of a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for studies published between January 1,1998, and December 31, 2017, in which the prevalence of anti-HDV
antibody or HDV RNA was reported.
Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for the detection of HBV antigens and antibodies: HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs, anti-HBe (Axsym, ABBOTT) and anti-HDV
(ETI-AB-DELTAK-2, DiaSorin, Italy) antibodies.
Eiger now has multiple active anti-HDV
agents in development, including an oral therapy and a subcutaneous injectable therapy to study alone and in combination toward the suppression or cure of HDV.'
The selected HBsAg-positive serum samples were retrospectively tested for the presence of total anti-HDV
antibodies using the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ETI-AB-DELTAK-2 (DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy) with 99.0% (95% confidence interval; CI: 97.8-99.6%) clinical specificity and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.8-100%) clinical sensitivity for detection of total anti-HDV
antibodies, as declared by the manufacturer.
SGPT 150 IU/L (n=less than 41 IU/L) in males and less than 31 IU/L in females), Alk Phosphatase 112 IU/L (n=less than 104 IU/L), Albumin 3.82 gm/dl (n=3.4 - 4.8 g/dl), PT 11/11 Sec, INR 1.0 (n=1.1), Uric Acid 4.3 mg/dl (n=less than 7.0 mg/dl in males, less than 5.7 mg/dl in females), HBsAg Reactive, Anti-HCV Non-Reactive, Anti-HDV
Reactive, HBV-DNA by PCR Detected, HDV-RNA by PCR Detected.
If HBsAg is found to be "Reactive" by ELISA, HBVDNA quantitative PCR, HBeAg and anti-HBe, along-with anti-HDV
should be tested, to determine whether HBV infection is active or not, and to look for concomitant hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection.
Among 178 patients co-infected with HIV/ HBV, 35 (19.7%, 95% CI: 14%-25%) cases were positive for HDV Ab and 143 cases (80.3%) were negative for anti-HDV
Of these, 294 were subsequently screened by using ELISA for anti-HDV
IgG; reactive samples were tested for HDV IgM.
Out of 95 patient 58 (61.05%) were anti-HCV positive, 18 (18.94%) were HBsAg positive while 5 (5.3%) were both anti-HCV and HBsAg positive and 4(4.2%) were positive for both HBsAg and anti-HDV
Serum of patients with acute viral hepatitis was investigated by ELISA for the presence of anti-HDV
IgM, anti-HBc IgM, HBsAg, anti-HCV IgM, total anti-HCV, anti-HDV
IgM, anti-E2HGV using the test kits produced by "Vector Best" CJSC (Novosibirsk, Russia).
typically appears 6-7 weeks after exposure, remains elevated during the acute phase of the illness and then declines.
HDV infection may be diagnosed by detecting HDAg in serum during early infection and by the appearance of total or IgM-specific delta antibody (anti-HDV
) during or after infection.