anti-GAD antibodies

anti-GAD antibodies

Antibodies to the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. These antibodies are present in DIABETES MELLITUS and appear before the disease become clinically manifest. They may be useful predictors of the condition, but are also found in the STIFF MAN SYNDROME and other conditions.
References in periodicals archive ?
(32) We only measured anti-GAD antibodies, which might result in underestimation of the prevalence of diabetes predisposition in our cohort.
The anti-GAD antibodies typically cause a form of autoimmune encephalitis with classic temporal lobe lesions on MR imaging with the expected clinical findings of limbic encephalitis, and/or additional features of stiff person syndrome with early and prominent development of seizures [6].
The focal, formerly called partial, form, Stiff Limb Syndrome (SLS) is also sometimes associated with anti-GAD antibodies, and usually involves one lower extremity [14].
Although the number of drug-resistant patients with JME our study was limited, it did not show relationships among anti-GAD antibodies in terms of both epileptic syndromes and drug resistance.
For some authors cerebellar ataxia and other cerebellar disorders should be the result of a lack of GABA which is targeted by anti-GAD antibodies. Patients with cerebellar ataxia of an unknown cause should have an anti-GAD test [8].
Immunological tests for the detection of anti-GAD antibodies are already in use in some of the hospitals in South Africa, including the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital (Johannesburg, Gauteng) and Universitas Academic Hospital (Bloemfontein, Free State).
The striking facts in terms of the present cases were the presence of negative ICA and anti-GAD antibodies in both cases and the increased insulin antibody titers at the end of the 3rd year in the 74-year-old female during the time period that the hypoglycemic attacks occurred.
When known concentrations (0.5-12.5 RU/mL) of monoclonal anti-GAD antibodies were added to serum samples containing known concentrations of anti-TPO or anti-Tg autoantibodies, serum samples with anti-TPO autoantibodies showed little and samples with anti-Tg autoantibodies showed no cross-reactivity.
Patients in the IVIG group showed significant reduction in both distribution of stiffness and heightened sensitivity during the test period, accompanied by a 33% drop in anti-GAD antibodies, but these benefits were lost when patients crossed over to the placebo group, said Dr.
However, anti-GAD antibodies are present only in two-thirds of patients [6, 9].
Anti-GAD antibodies are associated with several autoimmune diseases and are diagnostic markers in SPS (1,5).
Serum islet cell antibodies, anti-GAD antibodies and anti-insulin antibodies were negative.