Salzman and Ruhl point out that most observers view the value of the environment anthropocentrically
; that is the value of environmental protection stems from how it affects humans in a positive way.
Part of the burden of this essay, then, is to shift the weight of theological emphasis away from understanding the Spirit either theocentrically or anthropocentrically
toward an explicitly biocentric model of the Spirit in nature.
Thus, whereas the greater part of humanitarian law appraises the environment anthropocentrically
, Article 35 treats it as possessing intrinsic value (value not measured by its contribution to humankind) that is autonomous to some degree.
Both thinkers proceed phenomenologically, transcendentally, and anthropocentrically
. The answer to the question is always inadequate because it is shrouded in mystery.
You write, "Struggles for social justice absolutely require that people think anthropocentrically
." Is this a code word for "selfishly"?
The question of identity also lies at the heart of the discussion about the environmental crisis.(53) Do we conceive of nature anthropocentrically
or as a complex system of which humanity is one part among many?
Their disagreement has to do with whether the anthropocentrically
grouped spectral properties of physical objects are to be identified with colours (since it is physical objects that we typically experience as coloured), or whether colours are to be identified with the qualitative aspect of the perceptions themselves.
However, preservationism, like conservationism, is anthropocentrically
based because value is derived from human interests, so that economic efficiency remains an important goal.
Unfortunately, exploration on anthropocentrically
(de)limited terms is tantamount to domination, and under "trial by fire" the Invincible sheds the guise of a scientifically neutral space probe for the titanium-molybdenum armor plates of a fighting machine.
Although it is an interesting thought exercise, such a proposal would cost trillions of dollars (the authors' estimate), would require massive amounts of energy to make, transport, and distribute fresh water and perhaps fertilizers for each tree, and would create an unsustainable forest vulnerable to dieoff from pests, storms, irrigation loss, and many other "surprises." The picture of the Sahara as a wasteland to be improved is also in our view ecologically, culturally, and anthropocentrically
myopic and doomed to fail.
Second, he asks whether we are prepared "to shift the weight of theological emphasis away from understanding the Spirit either theocentrically or anthropocentrically
" and move toward an "explicitly biocentric model of the Spirit in nature?" Third, Wallace asks whether we can arrive at a coherent and credible understanding of Spirit without confronting the reality of evil which seems to call into question the notion of the Spirit as cosmic healer and sustainer of all life forms on the planet.