leaf samples Test Result Alkaloids + Flavonoids - Cardenolides - Anthraquinones
+ Tannins + Coumarins - Indoles - Sugars + Higher alcohols - Saponins - (-): Absent, (+): Present Table 3: Serum enzyme levels across different experimental treatment groups Group Serum enzyme, I U/L (mean[+ or -]SD) AST ALT I (normal) 76.
Table 1: Qualitative phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii leaves Phytochemicals Status Alkaloids + Tannins + Anthraquinones
- Flavonoids + Glycosides + Cardenolides + Phenolics + Terpenoids + Steroids - Saponins + +=Detected; -=Not detected Table 2: Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii leaves Phytochemicals %Composition Flavonoids 23.
Type of extract Alkaloids Saponins Polyphenols Flavonoids Aqueous crude (+) (+) (+) (-) Dichloromethane fraction (-) (+) (-) (+) n-butanol fraction (+) (+) (+) (-) Negative control (vehicle) (-) (-) (-) (-) Type of extract Terpenoids Anthraquinones
Tannins Phytosterols Aqueous crude (-) (-) (+) (+) Dichloromethane fraction (-) (-) (+) (+) n-butanol fraction (-) (-) (+) (+) Negative control (vehicle) (-) (-) (-) (-) Type of extract Cardiac glycosides Aqueous crude (-) Dichloromethane fraction (-) n-butanol fraction (-) Negative control (vehicle) (-) Note: (+): present; (-): absent Note: (+): present; (-): absent Table 7: Phytochemical screening of aqueous crude extracts and solvent fractions of Thymus serrulatusleaves.
Previous investigations have reported anthraquinones
, xanthones, anthrones, bianthrones and other related compounds in several Vismia species such as V.
Photodynamic activity of anthraquinones
isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f.
Chemical Analysis: Alkaloids, glycosides, starch grains, tannins, anthraquinone
, saponins and ferric chlorides were present whereas fixed and volatile oils were absent.
However, free fatty acids and anthraquinones
were found not present.
Alkaloids (+) (-) Anthraquinones
(-) (-) Cyanogenic glycosides (-) (-) Flavonoids (++) (+++) Steroids (+++) (+++) Tannins (-) (++) Legend: (+) presence, (++) abundant, (+++) very abundant and (-) absence
The GTNE and NNE was used to test the presence or absence of alkaloids, glycosides, sapoinins, flavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones
and tannic acid according to pre-established procedures21 including the measurement of secondary metabolites in crude form.
were not detected by TLC in the aerial parts.
All products are formulations based on polysaccharides, enzimes and anthraquinones
from aloe, nopal, moringa and chitosan.
The structures of antioxidant and cytotoxic agents from natural source: anthraquinones
and tannins from roots