When caged sparrows were provided with the maize seeds treated, a non-significant difference was observed with different concentrations (C) of anthraquinone
and methylanthranilate, which showed that all concentrations are equally effective to repel the sparrows to consume maize seeds, there also existed a non-significant difference between the interaction of concentrations and treatment and between chemicals and concentrations (Table 1).
Baldwin RA Meinerz R Witmer GW Werner SJ The elusive search for an effective repellent against voles: An assessment of anthraquinone
for citrus crops J Pest Sci 2018 9111071310.1007/s10340-018-0979-8
chilensis extracts also showed a positive correlation between its total antioxidant activity (TRAP) and flavonoid and anthraquinone
contents ([r.sub.s] = 0.81 and [r.sub.s] = 0.78, respectively, P < 0.05).
such as chrysophanol (1,8-dihydroxy-3methylanthraquinone) and physcione (1,8-dihydroxy-3methyl-6-methoxy-anthraquinone) (Figure 1), triterpenes such as lupeol ([beta]-lup-20 (29)-en-3-ol), and flavonoids such as quercetin are commonly identified in various species of Senna.
Tsai et al., "Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of anthraquinones
in Rheum palmatum in rats and ex vivo antioxidant activity," Planta Medica, vol.
Previous phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of stilbenes and anthraquinones
as major components in F.
The rest of the structure, composed of the R group, includes the anthraquinone
chromophore in the middle part and the glucopyranose ring at the right end.
The present study's objective was to evaluate the potential of zero-valent copper nanoparticles (nZVC) to degrade the (1-amino-4-[3-(4,6-dichlorotriazin-2-ylamino)-4-sulfophenylamino] anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid) dye, commercially known as RB4 which is an anthraquinone
dye used on the textile sector on dying processes.
Therefore, a number of compounds, including flavonoids, iridoids, coumarins, anthraquinone-2-carboxlic acid, cyclopentene derivatives, benzaldehyde derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, [beta]-lapachone, and quinones, including naphthoquinones, furanonaphthoquinones, and anthraquinones
, have been extracted from T.
These effects are due to the variety of the chemical compounds including anthraquinones
, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, vitamins and enzymes contained (Choi and Chung 2003; Du Plessis and Hamman 2014; Akev et al.
In contrast, there is little information on the biodegradation of anthraquinone
pink, green, or a combination, are edible, but the green leaves are toxic when eaten in large amounts, due to high levels of oxalates and anthraquinone