The influence of an anthozoan
"host factor" on the physiology of a symbiotic dinoflagellate.
Granular amoebocytes have been described in anthozoan
wound infiltrates (Young, 1974; Meszaros and Bigger, 1999) and graft rejection areas (Olano, 1993).
A staging system for the regeneration of a polyp from the aboral physa of the anthozoan
cnidarian Nematostella vectensis.
Only recently has a symbiotic anthozoan
genome become available, from the scleractinian Acropora diginfera (Shinzato et al, 2011).
Stressing the importance of the gastrovascular system for anthozoan
physiology, Murdock (1978) examined specimens of Eunicea, Plexaurella, Plexaura, and Pseudoplexaura (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea).
Here we show that genes encoding a highly conserved (both domain organization and sequence) potential usherin are found not only in the deuterostome lineage but also in some protostomes (molluscs and annelids) and the anthozoan
Many authors state that all cnidarian planula larvae are lecithotrophic, although several examples of planktotrophic anthozoan
larvae are known (see below).
Gene expression normalization in a dual-compartment system: a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction protocol for symbiotic anthozoans
The latter specimen had unusually pale cerata, probably reflecting an atypical complement of the anthozoans
normally consumed by this species (Beeman and Williams 1980).
Furthermore, recent descriptions of very small phosphatized fossils that predate the Cambrian by 25 million years or more have demonstrated the presence of cnidarians that might even be stem anthozoans
(the cnidarian class that includes anemones and corals).
In addition, the live cover of eight epibenthic biotic characteristics (erect macroalgae, turf algae, calcareous rhodophytes in the genus Porolithon, seagrasses, sponges, hydrocorals in the genus Millepora, encrusting non-scleractinian anthozoans
, and scleractinians were ranked as follows: 1(0%), 2(1-5%), 3(6-10%), 4(11-25%), 5(26-50%), 6(51-75) and 7(76-100%).
Dolmer (2002) observed reduced numbers of poriferans, echinoderms, anthozoans
, molluscs, crustaceans, and ascidians in dredged areas four months after dredging for mussels.