Cervical dystonia causes rotation of the head (torticollis), tilting of the head (laterocollis), flexion of the neck (anterocollis), and extension of the neck (retrocollis).
They were categorized as torticollis, laterocollis, anterocollis, retrocollis, and combined form according to their clinical manifestation.
Pure torticollis was determined in 34 (59.64%), pure laterocollis was determined in 5 (8.78%), pure anterocollis was determined in 1 (1.75%), and the combined form was determined in 17 (29.83%, of the 17 patients with combined form, 11 had torticollis in addition to retrocollis, 4 had torticollis in addition to anterocollis, and 2 had multiple-sided rotation) of the patients.
The reported percentages of anterocollis and retrocollis by these authors were higher than ours, too.
Any of the 52 muscles in the neck can be involved in combination to produce involuntary movements in a sustained or spasmodic nature in a combination of anterocollis
, laterocollis, rotational torticollis or retrocollis.