anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy

neuropathy, anterior ischaemic optic (AION)

A group of disorders that have in common ischaemia of the anterior portion of the optic nerve (especially the optic nerve head). Affected patients, usually between 50 and 75 years of age, present with sudden, severe visual loss often accompanied by periocular pain and jaw claudication. The disc is pale and swollen and severe optic atrophy eventually ensues. Ischaemia is due either to inflammation of the arterioles (posterior ciliary arteries) supplying blood to the anterior portion of the optic nerve (i.e. arteritic) or to an idiopathic aetiology (i.e. non-arteritic). Arteritic AION generally affects older individuals and is most commonly associated with temporal (giant cell) arteritis. Systemic findings include weight loss, malaise, scalp and joint pain and tenderness, and possibly hypertension. Rapid diagnosis and treatment (usually corticosteroids) is crucial in order to avoid permanent visual loss as well as systemic complications. Non-arteritic AION generally affects younger patients and causes severe visual loss. There are few systemic effects of the condition. No specific treatment has been identified. See arteriosclerosis; altitudinal hemianopia.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann
References in periodicals archive ?
Quantitative assessment of optic nerve head morphology and retinal nerve fibre layer in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy with optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoloscopy.
Danesh-Meyer, "Nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy: a review and update," Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol.
She was diagnosed with anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy secondary to calciphylaxis.
Hyperhomocysteinemia in young patients with nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Br J Ophthalmol 1999; 83: 1287 90.
Optic nerve head swelling and haemorrhages are not a feature of PION and in this case these features could have been caused by raised intracranial pressure (due to the intracranial haemorrhage), the bleeding tendency associated with dengue infection and/or concomitant anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION).
Anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy is defined as an infarction of the optic nerve secondary to occlusion of the posterior circulation just behind the lamina cribosa.2 It is divided into two categories: arteritic (10% of cases) and non-arteritic (90% of cases).
Hyperhomocysteinaemia in young patients with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy. Br JOphthalmol 1999; 83: 1287-1290.
Unilateral conditions such as optic neuritis, anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and central retinal vessel occlusions can cause an RAPD.
AION (anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy) with optic nerve swelling and visual loss is a common first presentation of GCA and, again, the diagnosis of AION in a patient over 50 years of age with a headache should raise a strong suspicion of temporal arteritis.

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