anterior horn cell


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mo·tor neu·ron

a nerve cell in the spinal cord, rhombencephalon, or mesencephalon characterized by having an axon that leaves the central nervous system to establish a functional connection with an effector (muscle or glandular) tissue; somatic motor neuron directly synapse with striated muscle fibers by motor endplates; visceral motor neuron or autonomic motor neuron (preganglionic m. neurons), by contrast, innervate smooth muscle fibers or glands only by the intermediary of a second, peripheral, neuron (postganglionic m. neuron) located in an autonomic, or visceral motor, ganglion.
See also: motor endplate, autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system.

anterior horn cell

A somatic motor neuron that has its cell body in the ventral (anterior) horn of the gray matter of the spinal cord; its axon passes out through a ventral root and innervates skeletal muscle.
See also: cell
References in periodicals archive ?
Electrodiagnostic studies showed markedly reduced motor responses in the right arm with normal sensory responses, consistent with a severe asymmetric process affecting anterior horn cells.
These findings were consistent with a severe, asymmetric process affecting anterior horn cells or motor axons.
The clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in these patients with WNV infection suggest involvement of spinal cord gray matter, specifically anterior horn cells, and a resulting acute poliomyelitis-like syndrome.
Upper motor neuron lesions in stroke patients do not induce anterograde transneuronal degeneration in spinal anterior horn cells. Stroke 1997;28:2553-6.
Patients with flaccid paralysis have perivascular lymphocytic infiltration in the spinal cord, microglial nodules, and loss of anterior horn cells (9).
Clinical features and electrodiagnostic tests can help differentiate poliomyelitislike syndrome from Guillain-Barre syndrome by localizing damage primarily to motor axons, anterior horn cells, or both, with relative sparing of sensory nerves in the former, as opposed to localizing the damage to peripheral myelin or muscle in the latter (18,31,32,34).
Nonspecific immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis should be considered for patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome but are not indicated for patients with paralysis due to damage of anterior horn cells (30).
Electromyography and nerve-conduction studies (EMG/NCS) were indicative of a severe asymmetric process involving anterior horn cells and/or their axons.
EMG/NCS were indicative of a severe asymmetric process affecting anterior horn cells and/or their axons.
Analysis of the staining in the ALS samples showed that the viral DNA was localized in the cytoplasm of the anterior horn cells, which appeared by morphology to be neurons.

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