An oblique incision was made behind the anterior axillary fold
after 5 minutes of injecting the dye.
Caption: Figure 1: Deformity of anterior axillary fold
On serial examinations, the anterior axillary fold was obliterated (Figure 3(a)).
Both acute and chronic rupture cases share the characteristic feature of losing anterior axillary fold. Early surgery treatment is preferable; nevertheless, good outcomes are achievable in a delayed setting.
Additionally, the muscle forms the anterior axillary fold
making it important cosmetically especially to bodybuilders.
Chronic cases especially bodybuilders may complain of a cosmetic problem of a defect in the course of the muscle and absence of anterior axillary fold. Physical examination shows a thin anterior axillary fold or even a sulcus at the deltopectoral groove.
In 20 cases with presentation time equal to one month and more, weakness in adduction and internal rotation and cosmetic discomfort of a defect at the rupture site and anterior axillary fold were the main complaints (Fig.
Nonspecific clinical signs are ecchymosis and pain, but more specific is a loss or thinning of the anterior axillary fold
Length of the crutch should extend from 2 inches below the anterior axillary fold
till 6 inches in front and lateral to the tip of the toes.
A technique of core decompression has been described by using a small incision in the anterior axillary fold
above the pectoralis major tendon.
Another nodule of size 5 x2cm was present over his left anterior axillary fold
with axillary lymphadenopathy.
Findings as pain in the medial side of the upper arm, swelling and ecchymosis, asymmetry, and weakness with adduction and internal rotation are common, but the most useful sign is the absence of the anterior axillary fold
evidenced by resisted adduction or passive abduction of the affected arm .