Additionally, the analysis revealed non-significant, medium-sized main effects of condition for antagonistic muscles
(i.e, TA) (p = 0.332; d = 0.6).
Do the function of these sensors change when the muscles are activated to take action Does the co-activation of antagonistic muscles
play a role not only in actuation, but also in perception This project will investigate these questions through targeted experiments with human participants and controllable stiffness soft robots that provide greater access to internal variables.
(11) EMG in each type of movement showed unique patterns in terms of the duration of contraction, time course of repeated activities, and reciprocity in activity of antagonistic muscles
. In chorea and ballism, in addition to brief involuntary contraction at rest, sudden brief interruption of contraction occurs randomly in tonic isometric voluntary contraction.
It is physiologically controlled by excitatory presynaptic potentials of Ia afferent fibers and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials from muscle spindles of antagonistic muscles
. Tonus may be altered by hypotonia or hypertonia.
We note that the results showed the similar pattern in the agonistic muscles and also even the antagonistic muscles
such as TRO, ECR, and EDC.
The antagonistic muscles
at the elbow joint were much influenced during the primary strength at shoulder joint.
This may contribute to the reduced coordination of antagonistic muscles
and impaired gait function observed in adults with CP.
First of all, the tremulous neural drive may be subtle and obscured by substantial simultaneous voluntary and/or involuntary cocontraction of several antagonistic muscles
, which may stabilize the controlled joint and, thus, mask the tremor component of movement.
Continuous electrical stimulation of the wrist and finger extensor muscles after BTX-A treatment could also inhibit antagonistic muscles
such as the flexor muscles of the wrist and finger.
Fourthly, the maximal hip extension exercise may have involved activity of the antagonistic muscles
possibly altering the mechanical stimulus generated by the agonist muscles.
Tetanus toxin thus blocks the normal inhibition of antagonistic muscles
on which voluntary coordinated movements depends.
Coordination involves the proper muscles contracting to the proper extent at the exact instant they need to, for only as long as necessary, while antagonistic muscles
(biceps versus triceps, for instance) release and elongate with similar precision.