antagonism

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an·tag·o·nism

(an-tag'ŏ-nizm),
1. Denoting mutual opposition in action among structures, agents, diseases, or physiologic processes. Compare: synergism.
2. A situation in which the combined effect of two or more factors is smaller than the solitary effect of any one of the factors.
Synonym(s): mutual resistance
[G. antagōnisma, from anti, against, + agōnizomai, to fight, fr. agōn, a contest]

antagonism

/an·tag·o·nism/ (an-tag´o-nizm) opposition or contrariety between similar things, as between muscles, medicines, or organisms; cf. antibiosis.

antagonism

(ăn-tăg′ə-nĭz′əm)
n.
Biochemistry Interference in the physiological action of a chemical substance by another having a similar structure.

antagonism

[antag′əniz′əm]
Etymology: Gk, antagonisma, struggle
1 an inhibiting action between physiological processes, such as muscle actions.
2 the opposing actions of drugs.

antagonism

An interaction between chemicals or therapeutic agents, in which one substance partially or completely inhibits or counteracts the effect of the other.

an·tag·o·nism

(an-tag'ŏ-nizm)
1. Denoting mutual opposition in action between structures, agents, diseases, or physiologic processes.
Compare: synergism
2. The situation in which the combined effect of two or more factors is smaller than the solitary effect of any one of the factors.
Synonym(s): mutual resistance.
[G. antagōnisma, from anti, against, + agōnizomai, to fight, fr. agōn, a contest]

antagonism

  1. the inhibiting or nullifying action of one substance or organism on another, e.g. the antibiotic effect of penicillin, or the exhaustion of a food supply by one organism at the expense of another.
  2. the normal opposition between certain muscles (see ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLE).

antagonism,

n situation that occurs when an intervention brings about an opposite effect.

antagonism

1. opposition or contrariety between similar things, as between muscles, medicines or organisms, cf. antibiosis; the characteristic displayed by an antagonist.
2. epidemiologically speaking, the opposite of synergism. When the combined effects of two factors is smaller than the effect of any one of them.

antibiotic antagonism
is said to occur when the antibiotic effect of a dual administration is less than the antibiotic efficiency of the most effective of the individual drugs. Chloramphenicol and tetracyclines are considered to be antagonists to penicillins and aminoglycosides but particular combinations do not necessarily have the same effect on all bacteria.
competitive antagonism
the antagonism which blocks or reverses the effects of an agonist, provided that the antagonist is given at an appropriate dosage. The antagonism is completely reversible, and an increase in the biophasic concentration of the agonist will overcome the effect of the antagonist.
drug antagonism
drug antagonists are drugs that compete for the available receptors. They may be noncompetitive and have no pharmacological effect of their own, or competitive in that they are capable of reversing or altering an effect already achieved.
noncompetitive antagonism
is when the antagonist removes the receptor or its response potential from the system; this may be by preventing the agonist from producing its effect at a receptor site by irreversible change to the receptor or its capacity to respond. The antagonism is not reversible by increasing the concentration of the agonist.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fuller argues that with or without Islam, the region would still be a colonial target, the antagonisms would be between nationalisms and ideologies as they were initially within the Middle East.
While Neal opens the work with an invocation of the cultural critiques that happened in Jesse Hodges's barbershop in the Bronx and consistently invokes the "organic" call-and-response dynamics of "vibrant counterpublic(s)" in the Black Public Sphere, he devotes far more space to the problems of intra-racial class antagonism, inter-racial entanglement, and "mass-mediated" cultural events.
The way understand art history is that antagonisms are good.
The spread of affordable household machines would, they argued, alleviate social inequalities and antagonisms as, gradually, a society of individual consumers replaced one of producers divided along class lines.
Recent events have exacerbated intra-Kurdish antagonisms, but also concretized the autonomy that already exists.
The difficulties of accomplishing this task should not be underestimated -- considering that late German Renaissance art evolved, or rather fought its way to fruition, across a minefield of sectarian antagonisms which not only badly eroded the evidence of its own past through iconoclastic destruction, but created an often puzzling form of moral resistance that transformed into a distinctly northern idiom the classical styles and humanist subjects being promoted in Italy at the time.
The joys and pleasures of young lovers become hardened into lumps of mortar shells, broken dreams like those of many generations now involved in Middle Eastern antagonisms.
Thereby were such large issues as the relationship between Europe and America, London and New York, reduced to petty antagonisms and condescension.
This program promotes a kind of multipolar discourse, admitting various antagonisms that define the field of contemporary art, or at least certain sectors of it.
Unlike Warhol, who had a genius for attracting and holding on to collaborators and powerful supporters, Smith, who was fully as charismatic, was a Blakean agonist in his personal relations, thriving on enmity, with the power to mythologize his antagonisms, his obsessions, and his fantasies.
Based on oppositions and psychic antagonisms, the set was split into two parts to represent the two different locations in which the story takes place.