Endocrinology studies on female infertility have brought to limelight problems of anovulatory cycle
The first is that the combined Pill inhibits ovulation and we know that a menstrual cycle in which there is no ovulation, an anovulatory cycle
, is rarely accompanied by a painful period.
Table 3 Presenting symptoms of hyperprolactinemia Adult females Adult males Prepubertal children (male and female) Amenorrhea Decreased in Delayed seminal fluid puberty volume Anovulatory cycle
Galactorrhea Galactorrhea Breast enlargement Gynecomastia Gynecomastia Breast pain Impotence Osteopenia or osteoporosis Galactorrhea Galactorrhea Primary amenorrhea (females only) Hirsutism Infertility Loss of libido Oligomenorrhea Source: Adapted from reference 12 If laboratory testing detects elevated PRL levels in a child or adolescent, determine if the patient had sexual intercourse, nipple stimulation, stress (including venipuncture), sleep disturbances, seizures, head injury, or surgery before the blood sample was obtained.
Those who reported the highest fiber intake--22 grams per day or more, in line with general recommendations--were more likely to have at least one anovulatory cycle
over 2 months.
This is an anovulatory cycle
. Women are born with about 400 eggs on their ovaries.
HIV-positive women are more likely to have an anovulatory cycle
and amenorrhea, or a complete absence of a menstrual cycle.
 In most instances DUB is due to the occurence of an anovulatory cycle
most commonly at menarche and in perimenopausal period.
As shown in Table 4, majority cause of menorrhagia is due to dysfunction uterine bleeding (63.07%) secondary to anovulatory cycle
. It has been observed that the timing of the LH pulses is crucial in establishing normal ovulatory cycles.
There is no mutual consensus for deciding the appropriate interval of amenorrhoea which will precede an episode of vaginal bleeding due to the anovulatory cycles
that precedes menopause2.
During anovulatory cycles
, the imbalance of estrogen and progesterone creates a fragile endometrium, leading to unpredictable bleeding and irregular cycles.
Biological variability in serum anti-Mullerian hormone throughout the menstrual cycle in ovulatory and sporadic anovulatory cycles
in eumenorrheic women.
, discussed separately below, which may manifest as amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea or HMB owing to immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are the most common cause of AUB among adolescents (18).